midterm 3

midterm 3 - cardiovascular System Heart Vessels Intro to...

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cardiovascular System: Heart, Vessels, Intro to Nervous System, Brain, Cranial Nerves, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, Autonomic N.S., Special Senses 1. What is the mediastinum? The median space of the thorarci cavity 2. Where is the base and apex of the heart? Axis of the heart is tiliter so that the apex of the heart points to the lower left quadrant ( TOAWRD LEFT LING AT 5 TH INTERCOSTAL SPACE) BASE SUPERIOR END WHERE THE GREAT VESSELS ARE LOCATED t the lev of the third intercostal cartliage 2. Describe the structure of the pericardium. Two layers: o fibrous pericardium: tough, dense connective tissue layer that anchors the heart to the diaphragm and great vessels serour pericardium: visceral and pariental layers o parietal pericardium: serous membrane that produces serous (pericardial fluid) and lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium o visceral pericardium (epicardium): serous membrane that covers the surface of the heart and is continuous with the parietal pericardium. pericardial cavity: space between the parietal and visceralpericardium 3. Name the 3 layers of the heart wall (list both layers of the pericardium as one layer). Which layer secretes fluid? epicardium o epicardium: outer layer, called the visceral pericardium that secretes serous fluid o myocardium: middle layer composed of cardiac muscle tissue. The thickness varies in accordance with the force needed to eject blood from the particular chamber (thus the thickest part of the myocardium surrounds the left ventricle) o endocardium: inner layer of endothelium that is continuous with the blood vessels. The endocardium also covers the valves of the heart. 4. Beginning at the right atrium, list the path through the heart, pulmonary and systemic circuits that a RBC would take to complete both circuits (don’t list specific blood vessels here other than those near the heart). from the head, trunk and extremities, blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cavae . The coronary sinus from the heart itself to the right atrium . The right atrium pumps blood through the right atrioventricular (tricuspid = 3 flaps) valve to the right ventricle . From the right ventricle, blood flows through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk and then the pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated blood). In the lungs the blood becomes more red in color as it its oxygenated. Blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins (oxygenated blood) to the left atrium . The left atrium pumps blood through the left atrioventricular (bicuspid or mitral) valve to the left ventricle .
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From the left ventricle, blood flows through the aortic semilunar valve to the arch of the aorta and the descending aorta and out to the systemic arteries of the body. These arteries pass the blood to capillaries where the tissues of the body use the oxygen
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midterm 3 - cardiovascular System Heart Vessels Intro to...

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