H e i r a r c h y o f L i f e 1 Biological Sciences 102 – Animal Biology – Notes & Vocabulary All life on Earth is organized according to the scheme described below. Larger biological systems are formed of smaller ones. QUARKS Æ elementary particles that form parts of atoms (protons, etc.) ATOMS Æ fundamental unit of matter formed of protons, neutrons and electrons MOLECULES Æ formed of atoms bonded together (covalent, ionic, hydrogen bonds) including monosaccharides (simple sugars), amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides. MACROMOLECULES Æ large molecules formed of the smaller molecules above that are the building blocks of cells including carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins/peptides, lipids and nucleic acids. CELLS Æ the basic unit of life capable of reproducing/dividing that form all organisms TISSUES Æ two or more cells working together for a similar function (see types below) ORGANS Æ two or more different tissue types working together for a similar function ORGAN SYSTEMS
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