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Unformatted text preview: ulphur trioxide in which the aromatic hydrocarbons were converted to corresponding petroleum sulfonate derivatives. The extraction of the obtained petroleum sulfonates was optimized. The physical properties of these sulfonates were studied for which there applications could be widened. The aqueous isopropyl alcohol was found to be the most effective solvent in extracting the petroleum sulfonates from their oily solutions. The study of the emulsifying cooling – lubricating fluids (that consist of sodium petroleum sulfonates which were prepared by using different methods) led to the fact that the stability of such fluids changes notably by changing the sulfonation method.
th IND-P2 WASTE MUD CRAB (SCYLLA SERRATA) SHELL AS A HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST IN PALM OLEIN TRANSESTERIFICATION
1 Peng-Lim Boey, Gaanty Pragas Maniam and Shafida Abd Hamid 1 2 2 School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia E-mail: [email protected] 1 In the present study, the waste mud crab shells were utilized as a source of CaO to catalyzed transesterification of palm olein into methyl esters (biodiesel). Characterization results revealed that CaCO3, which is the main component of the shell, transformed into CaO upon activated thermally above 700 °C for 2 h. Parametric studies have been examined and optima l conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 5 wt. %; reaction temperature, 65 °C; and a stirring rate of 500 rpm. The waste catalyst performs equally well as laboratory CaO, thus creating another low -cost heterogeneous catalyst for producing biodiesel. Statistical analysis has been performed using a Central Composite Design to evaluate the contribution and performance of the parameters on biodiesel purity. 121 23rd-25th June 2010 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia IND-P3 REUTILIZATION AND REGENERATION OF OIL LADEN...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Csr during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisville.
- Spring '11