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Unformatted text preview: ant reduction of surface tension and cmc value in the presence of electrolyte. The surface tension value increased in the order: CaCl 2 <NaCl <without electrolyte as well as the CMC value. Nevertheless, neither addition of NaCl nor CaCl2 affects the cmc values of APG which reported as 0.079 mM. The result suggests that the presence of APG could help to minimize the sensitivity to electrolyte for SLES and thus ensure the surfactant performance, for example in cleaning agent though in the absence of chelating agent. The more significant impact of CaCl 2 could + be due to a higher degree of counterion binding than monovalent ions, Na which leading to greater charge neutralization and less electrostatic repulsion between the polar head groups in the mixed micelles of APG and SLES. The larger of the size of hydrated counterion will cause the cmc to decrease and favor the formation of mixed micelle. 118 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia IND-O7 23rd-25th June 2010 PYROLYSIS OF RESIDUAL PALM OIL IN SPENT BLEACHING CLAY BY TUBULAR FURNACE AND ANAL YSIS OF THE PRODUCTS BY GC-MS Peng-Lim Boey and Norzahir Sapawe School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia E-mail: [email protected] The palm oil refinery industry in Malaysia generates about 177 000 tonnes of spent bleaching clay (SBC) annually. At 1 % clay dosage, nearly 50 000 tonnes of adsorbed oil (at 28 % oil retention) can be recovered. This oil-laden SBC is currently under-utilized as it is dumped in landfills without any attempt to recover the oil. A total of 26.57 wt % of residual palm oil in spent bleaching clay was pyrolyzed using tubular furnace. The pyrolytic oil products analyzed by GC -MS showed aliphatic hydrocarbon ranging from C9 - C18 in the main condenser and C16 - C44 in the saturated NaCl solution extract. Carboxylic acids and alkanes were the major classes of compounds found in the main condenser and extract from NaCl solution. Significant amounts of monoaromatic compounds, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, nitrogenated comp...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Csr during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisville.
- Spring '11