Nanoparticles with particle size of less than 5 nm

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Unformatted text preview: hahran-31261, Saudi Arabia 3 RI, KFUPM, Dhahran-31261, Saudi Arabia E-mail: zahedhk@gmail.com In this paper, block formation during chain shuttling polymerization is investigated. Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form three-dimensional networks or polymer chains. It has many reactions with complex mechanism. Chains are formed during polymerization with suitable catalyst which exchanges the monomers of different characteristics. Chains grow up as blocks are formed. Hard and soft characteristics of different monomer may affect the habit of block formation during polymerization. Chain shuttling agent is responsible to act as an agent to setup paths for block formation of superior quality. To control the habit of blocks formed, it is necessary to develop these paths methodically. Hybrid fuzzy logic with genetic algorithm approach is used to construct the paths to direct chain formation of better blocks. 144 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia MAT-O5 23rd-25th June 2010 ESTERIFICATION VIA SACCHARINE MEDIATED SILICA SOLID CATALYST Kasim Mohammed Hello, *Farook Adam and Hasnah Osman School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia E-mail: farook@usm.my Saccharine (Sac) was immobilized on to rice husk ash (RHA) silica via 3-(chloropropyl)triethoxysilane (CPTES) to form a new catalyst, RHAC-Sac. The Sac loading on the silica was found to be ca. 82 %. The 29 2 3 3 4 13 Si MAS NMR showed the presence of T , T , Q and Q silicon centers. The C MAS NMR showed that RHAC-Sac had three chemical shifts consistent with the three carbon atoms of the propyl group and a series of chemical shifts consistent with the presence of the aromatic ring. RHAC -Sac had a specific 2 -1 surface area of 250 m g and a narrow average pore size of 3.28 nm. RHAC-Sac was used as a catalyst in the esterification reaction between ethyl alcohol and acetic acid. A 66 % conversion was achieved at 85 °C with 100 % selectivity for the ester. The stoichiometric composition of acid: alcohol = 1:1 was found to give the highest conversion. The use of Sac...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Csr during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisville.

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