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Unformatted text preview: hene. Further, the process has been f ound to be very useful in fabricating devices based on graphene, in eliminating fluorescence signals in resonance Raman spectroscopy and in visualising graphene sheets based on fluorescence quenching microscopy. In the -5 case of transfer to the single-walled carbon nanotubes, we find both exponential and d behaviour. For the case of metallic nanotubes, when the emission energy of the fluorophore is less than a threshold, -5 the dependence is exponential. Otherwise, it is d . For the case of semiconducting nanotubes, we find that the rate follows an exponential dependence if the amount of energy that is transferred can excite only the excitonic transition of the tube. However, if any other band gap transition is allowed, the rates -5 follow d dependence. For the case of transfer from pyrene to a (6, 4) nanotube, we find that the rate -5 has a d dependence and energy transfer is appreciable up to a distance of 175 Å. 59 23rd-25th June 2010 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia KN-21 OPPORTUNITIES IN MICROELECTRONIC PACKAGING, CHALLENGES AND THE NEED FOR INNOVATION Chee Choong Kooi Assembly Technology Development Malaysia (ATD -M), Intel Malaysia, Bayan Lepas Free Trade Zone, 11900 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org While you were surfing the Internet, playing your games or wo rking on your project, did you ever wonder what kind of microprocessors are being used? How are the microchips in your computers developed and manufactured? What are the materials used to obtain a robust package? How can the materials affect the performance of devices? Wonder no more! This paper answers these questions and explains the assembly packaging of advanced microchip. The challenges and trends of high density interconnection (HDI) assembly packaging of the semiconductor industry evolved based on Mo ore’s Law. It also considers the challenging trends of increasing transistor numbers, I/O counts, electrical power and thermal generations. In general, the impacts of Moore’s Law are the reduction in...
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