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Unformatted text preview: cts on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test. Using limonene as a penetration enhancer the permeation of ketoprofen from the formulated nano -emulsion increased according to the increasing concentration of limonene. The results obtained showed that nano emulsion with 3 % limonene produced similar and comparable release of ketoprofen with marketed formulation. Results of anti-inflammatory studies in rats correlated well to the results of in -vitro permeation studies. This work reveals the suitability of palm oil esters as a new ingredient for the pharmaceutical industry to deliver drug namely ketoprofen by transdermal route. Nano -emulsions could also be the dosage form of choice for future topical prepar ations. 116 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia IND-O3 23rd-25th June 2010 TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OLEIN INTO BIODIESEL USING WASTE BOILER ASH AS A HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST Peng-Lim Boey and Siew Seok Yee School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia E-mail: email@example.com In the present work, the ability of metal oxides present in boiler ash was investigated as a potential heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of palm olein into biodiesel. Boiler ash, an under -utilized oil palm mill waste, is abundantly available throughout the year. The use of waste catalyst in biodiesel production reduces the production cost of biodiesel as well as adds value to the waste itself. The waste catalyst was characterized by SEM-EDX, FTIR, TGA-FTIR and XRD. Optimization of reaction parameters (methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst amount) was done by using response surface methodology. A conversion of approximately 90 % was achieved under the optimal reaction condition of 20:1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 26 wt. % of catalyst (based on oil weight) at methanol refluxing temperature (65 °C) for a reaction period of 8 hours. IND-O4 CHEMICALLY MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN BIOPOLYMER AND ITS INDUSTRIALLY APPLICATION AS A HYDROCARBON DRILLING WELL ADDITIVE Mohamed-Rashid Ahmed Haras, *M. N. Mohamad...
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