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Unformatted text preview: mina support. The catalytic effect of these species was tested in the reduction of pnitrophenol (p-NP) using hydrazine as a reductant. The catalytic reaction was monitored spectrophotometerically and the highest rate constant (k) achieved based on pseudo-first-order kinetic -3 -1 model was 12.7 x 10 s . Structural and elemental characterizations of the supported gold nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). 151 23rd-25th June 2010 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia MAT-O19 CHARACTERIZATIONS AND EVALUATION OF LIGNIN-PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR BONDING RUBBERWOOD PLYWOOD
1 Z. Norhidaya, M. N. M. Ibrahim, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim and C. S. Sipaut 1 2 2 3 School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 3 School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah 88999, Malaysia E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
2 1 The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of lignin extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch as a substitute for phenol in phenolic resin due to their structure similarity. Initially, kraft and soda lignin were characterized to determine their suitability to replace phenol by examining their chemical, physical and thermal properties. The analytical methods used were FT -IR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, TGA, DSC, GPC and FESEM. The analyses showed both lignins had different compositions in terms of number and weight molecular (Mn and Mw), reactive site through Mannich reactivity analysis, content of phenolic groups, surface morphology and Tg value. Meanwhile, FT-IR spectra showed similar bands for both lignins. From all the analyses, it showed that kraft lignin is more reactive and suitable to replace phenol compared to soda lignin. Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF)...
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