My 1 in this study water soluble lignin graft

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Unformatted text preview: on process via the bulk technique. The resulting copolymer was characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) and carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen analyzer (CHN). The FTIR spectrum of the product showed absorption due to the presence of ester bonds as a proof of grafting. The DSC and TG-FTIR results showed significant improvements in the KL thermal properties at least 27.61 % as well as a thermal degradation resistance. The elements percentages of KL compositions were changed as shown by the CHN data. SEM micrographs illustrated the grafting reaction homogenizing the KL morphological structure. In optimization process of LGC formulation at different aging temperature, LGC at low dosage of 0.5 % (w/w) showed good gelling and viscosity building abilities. At 200 °C for 16 hours, LGC able to maintain the pH of drilling mud at desired pH range of 8 - 10 and gelling strength compare to other commercial additives such as CMC, guar gum and xanthane which showed severe decrease at high temperature. The tafel plot result revealed that LGC able to act as a corrosion retardant agent in the drilling mud itself. 46 3rd ICYC 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia KN-07 23rd-25th June 2010 TEACHING GREEN CHEMISTRY: METRICS FOR EVALUATING SYNTHESIS SCHEMES Stephan Jaenicke Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 E-mail: ‘Green and Sustainable Chemistry’ has become a buzz word. Many schemes are proposed for a ‘greening’ of chemical reactions, such as implementation of catalytic steps, conducting reactions in water or ionic liquids, solvent-less reactions, the use of microwave heating and other means of process intensification. However, many of these schemes are unpractical, unsuitable for scale -up, or neglect follow-up operations which are more damaging than what has been avoided. A realistic assessment of the environmental benefit of a process is therefore required. The pharmaceutical industry has grown relative to other branches of the chemical industry and now provide...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Csr during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisville.

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