CHE_Toxicants_and_Disease_Database.160121218 - CHEMICAL...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS AND HUMAN DISEASE: A SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE Sarah Janssen, MD, PhD, MPH, University of California, San Francisco Gina Solomon, MD, MPH, Natural Resources Defense Council, University of California San Francisco Ted Schettler, MD, MPH, Science and Environmental Health Network, Boston Medical Center Supported by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment For questions or comments about the database, please contact Eleni Sotos at Please note that the attached document is a spreadsheet version of the CHE Toxicant and Disease Database. The spreadsheet was created to provide a hard copy version to those without computers or Internet access and to distribute to relevant conference and meetings. The online version of the database, located at, offers the user the opportunity to search the database by toxicant, disease, disease category or Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number. To request additional hard copies of the spreadsheet or an electronic Excel file via email, contact Eleni Sotos, National Coordinator of the Collaborative on Health and the Environment at About the CHE Toxicant and Disease Database (Spreadsheet Version) Human disease results from complex interactions among genes and the environment. Environmental exposures to chemical, physical, and biological agents may cause or contribute to disease in susceptible individuals. Personal lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, alcohol use, level of exercise, and UV exposure, often are a primary focus when considering preventable causes of disease. However, exposures to chemical contaminants on the job, at home, in the outdoors, and even in utero, are increasingly recognized as important and preventable contributors to human disease. These exposures are the focus of this project. More than 80,000 chemicals have been developed, distributed, and discarded into the environment over the past 50 years. The majority of them have not been tested for potential toxic effects in humans or animals. Some of these chemicals are commonly found in air, water, food, homes, work places, and communities. Whereas the toxicity of one chemical may be incompletely understood, an understanding of the effect from exposures to mixtures of chemicals is even less complete. Chemicals may have opposing, additive, or even synergistic effects. One example of a synergistic effect is tobacco smoking coupled with asbestos exposure, which increases the risk of lung cancer by 25-fold—a risk much higher than that resulting from the sum of the risks of the individual agents. Toxic effects of chemical agents are often not well understood or appreciated by health care providers and the general public. Some chemicals, such as asbestos, vinyl chloride and lead, are well established as causes of human disease. There also is good evidence to suggest increases in the incidence of some cancers, asthma, and developmental disorders can be attributed to chemical exposure, particularly in young children. Other diseases, such as ALS or Gulf War Syndrome have been hypothesized to be associated with chemical exposures, but the evidence is limited. The effects of chemical exposures in humans are difficult to study because controlled human experimentation isn't ethically feasible. There is limited human data obtained from accidental exposures, overdoses, or studies of workers exposed occupationally. Environmental exposure studies in the general population also can be useful, though they often have limitations. Many diseases, such as cancer, may not appear until decades after an exposure has occurred making it difficult for causal associations to be identified. Exposure assessment, a critical step in environmental epidemiologic studies, is difficult. Retrospective exposure assessment usually requires estimates and considerable judgment and is subject to significant error. An individual's exposure may change over time, and exposures occur to multiple chemicals both in the home and work environments. It is difficult for individuals to remember what they have been exposed to and, moreover, most people are unaware of what their exposures were. The effects of chemical exposures may vary, depending on the age of exposure (in utero, childhood, adult), the route of exposure (ingestion, inhalation, dermal), amount and duration of exposure, exposures to multiple chemicals simultaneously, and other personal susceptibility factors, including genetic variability. Because of these challenges, most toxicity research is conducted in animal studies. Although animal studies are not the emphasis of this database, animal studies contribute important toxicological information and can provide strong evidence of disease without human epidemiological studies if the mechanism of action is relevant. Many regulatory decisions to limit or ban a chemical's use are based on animal data. Furthermore, human epidemiology studies often are conducted after an association has been hypothesized based on animal data. The accompanying database summarizes links between chemical contaminants and ~180 human diseases or conditions. We have designed this database to reflect the current state of knowledge about toxicants and human disease, organized by disease categories. Because the database focuses primarily on human epidemiological studies and a comprehensive review of animal data was beyond the scope of this project, animal data were included for only a few diseases. Data for the database were obtained from three major textbooks on the topic of environmental medicine and toxicology. These sources are: 1. Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th edition. (2001) McGraw-Hill publishing, New York. 2. LaDou J. Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd edition (2004), Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill, New York. 3. Rom WM, Ed. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd edition (1998). Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA. Literature searches for human epidemiological studies and reviews of disease topics were carried out to supplement and update textbook information. Strength of evidence Chemicals that have been linked to a condition are placed in one of three categories based on the strength of evidence for the association. The "strong evidence" category is reserved for chemicals where a causal association with disease has been verified. The toxicity of these chemicals has been well-accepted by the medical community and is noted in the textbook references as, "It is well known that x chemical causes y condition" or "There is strong evidence that x compound causes y disease". Other chemicals were put into this category by causal associations drawn from more recent large prospective or retrospective cohort studies. Finally, chemicals listed as Group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) are included in this category. These are chemicals that have been determined to have sufficient evidence for causing cancer in humans. The "good evidence" category includes chemicals associated with a disease through epidemiological studies (cross-sectional, case-series, or case-control studies) or for chemicals with some human evidence and strong corroborating animal evidence of an association. Textbook statements such as, "There is evidence for an association between exposure to x compound and y disease." assumed good evidence. IARC Group 2A chemicals, those with limited evidence for causing cancer in humans and sufficient evidence in animals, also are included in this category. The "limited/conflicting evidence" category contains chemicals weakly associated with human disease by reports from only a few exposed individuals (case reports), from conflicting human epidemiological studies that have given mixed or equivocal results, or in a few cases, from reports clearly demonstrating toxicity in animals where no human data exist. Also included in this category are IARC Group 2B chemicals and EPA Group B2 chemicals. These chemicals show limited or inadequate evidence of causing cancer in humans and limited animal evidence of causing cancer. The majority of the chemicals in the database fall into the "limited/conflicting" evidence category. This is because human epidemiological studies are very complex, difficult to design and interpret, and cannot be easily repeated. Health outcomes linked to exposures to mixtures of compounds, such as pesticides or solvents, sometimes provide hints of causal associations and direct future research efforts but usually cannot provide strong evidence, especially for one particular chemical. Animal data often provide the supporting evidence of an individual chemical's toxicity when human data are missing or incomplete. As more scientific research is done some chemicals in the database may be found to have stronger evidence for causing disease, new chemicals will be added, and others may be found to have no association with a disease and fall of the list entirely. Database limitations This database has significant limitations that are important to keep in mind. 1. The chemicals listed are a representation of toxicants that contribute to human disease and disorders. This is not an exhaustive or comprehensive list and includes primarily chemicals and diseases found in major textbooks and medical literature reviews. Chemicals that are not listed also may be causally associated with a disease. 2. The database does not address the route, timing, duration, or amount of exposure required to result in a particular condition. Some chemicals may only be toxic if inhaled, whereas others need to be ingested in order to be toxic. Some diseases result from only high dose exposures whereas low-level exposures may be less important. Moreover, variations in the susceptibility to toxic effects, depending on the timing and duration of exposure, are not addressed. For example, a fetus or developing child is often more susceptible to a given exposure than an adult. For details on the dose, timing, duration, and route of exposure, etc. the reader is referred to the textbooks, references, and the attached web-links. 3. The database makes no attempt to quantify the proportion of disease that is caused or contributed to by specific environmental factors. For example, mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer, is almost entirely due to exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the proportion of lung cancer cases caused by asbestos exposure is relatively small compared to the number of cases caused by tobacco smoking or radon. 4. Finally, this is a work in progress. In many cases, the authors exercised judgment when considering the strength and categorization of evidence. Comments from readers are welcome and should be sent to Sarah Janssen at or Eleni Sotos at Disclaimer and Acknowledgement: This publication was supported by cooperative agreement numbers U5O/CCU922449 and U5O/CCU923293 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as part of a national environmental public health tracking program. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC. Chemical Contaminants and Human Disease: A Summary of Evidence Sarah Janssen MD, PhD, MPH; Gina Solomon MD, MPH; Ted Schettler MD, MPH Supported by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment DISEASE Toxicants - By Strength of Evidence CATEGORIES STRONG GOOD LIMITED or CONFLICTING Abnormal sperm (morphology, motility, and sperm count) 1 chlordecone; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); Ethylene glycol ethers; Heat; ethylene dibromide (EDB); Ionizing radiation; Microwave radiation; lead; 1,1dichloroethane 2-bromopropane; carbon disulfide; Estrogens/DES; PCBs; Pesticides; alachlor; atrazine; benomyl; 2,4-D; diazinon; gossypol; 1,1dichloroethane; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) toluene diamine; toluene; ozone; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); Furans; octylphenol; lindane; TNT (Trinitrotoluene); bisphenol A; acrylamide; aluminum; Alkyl phenols; 1,3-butadiene; boron; bromine ; cadmium; Chromium; Dinitrotoluenes; Dioxins/TCDD; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); ethylene oxide; Microwave radiation; Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Pesticides; carbaryl; dinoseb; fenchlorphos; Organochlorine pesticides; DDT/DDE; mirex; molinate; Phthalates; Solvents; acetone; styrene REFERENCES SIDENOTES IN SOME CHEMICALS AND DISEASES See references at end of document 42; 53; 56; 75; 76; Maternal tobacco smoking has recently been correlated with 80; 89; 98; 134; decreased sperm density. 139; 145; 161; 165; 181; 202; 209; 217; 222; 223; 235; 240; 241; 251 Acroosteolysis (vinyl chloride disease) Dermatology (Skin); Immunology vinyl chloride Affected workers polymerizing vinyl chloride in 1960's. Patients developed finger parathesias, cold sensitivity, Raynaud's phenomenon, pseudo-clubbing of the fingers, and skin edema and thickening of the fingers, hands, and forearms. Increased prevalence noted in HLA DR3 and DR3/B8 haplotypes. antimony; hexachlorobenzene; 2nitropropane; paraquat; diquat; PCBs; phosphine; Dioxins/TCDD; trichloroethane Chromic acid; dichloroacetylene; dichlorohydrin; dimethylacetamide; Manganese carbonyls; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordecone; 2,4-D; sulfuryl fluoride; styrene; toluene; xylene 47; 144 Acute hepatocellular injury Liver; Gastrointestinal Anesthetic gases; halothane; (Hepatitis) Chlorinated naphthalenes; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Ionizing radiation; phosphorus; Solvents; bromobenzene; carbon tetrachloride; carbon tetrabromide; chloroform; dimethylformamide; tetrachloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); TNT (Trinitrotoluene); Aflatoxins; Mushroom toxins Acute tubular necrosis Renal (kidney) Metals; arsine; cadmium; Chromium; lead; mercury; Stibene (antimony); vanadium; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; 1,1-dichloroethane; methanol; pentachlorophenol (PCP); phosphorus dioxane; diquat; ethylene chlorohydrin; Ethylene glycols; Ethylene glycol ethers; Ionizing radiation; paraquat; Petrochemicals; Solvents; tetrachloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; uranium; vinylidene chloride arsenic; bromobenzene; carbolic acid; copper; Dinitrophenols; Dinitro-o-Cresols; glycerol; Manganese carbonyls; Organophosphates; potassium bromate; Solvents; 1,2-dichloroethane; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); tetrafluoroethylene; sulfuryl fluoride Cigarette smokers have double the cadmium exposure of nonsmokers resulting in 4-5 times higher blood cadmium levels and 23 times higher kidney cadmium levels. In nonsmokers, the main route of exposure to cadmium is through the diet. Inorganic mercury salts are most nephrotoxic. Methanol toxicity is due to the formation of formaldehyde and formate metabolic products. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) causes reversible decreased renal function at subtoxic doses. Arsine causes hemolysis and ATN secondary to hemoglobinuria. Toluene has been implicated as a nephrotoxin in inhalation abuse of solvents and glue. 44; 58; 60; 105; 137; 181; 182 ADD/ADHD, hyperactivity Developmental; Neurology; Pediatrics ethyl alcohol (ethanol); PCBs; lead manganese; Solvents; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) cadmium; Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Pesticides; DDT/DDE; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos; diazinon; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; bioallethrin; deltamethrin; cypermethrin; trichloroethylene (TCE); trimethyltin Adrenal cancer Adult-onset Leukemias * Oncology (cancer); Endocrine (Hormones) Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer) benzene+; ethylene oxide+; arsenic; Aromatic amines; 1,3Ionizing radiation+ butadiene#; carbon disulfide; Dioxins/TCDD; formaldehyde; Chlorinated solvents; carbon tetrachloride; 1,2-dichloroethane^; Pesticides; Agent Orange; alachlor; DDT/DDE; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) thallium arsenic; boron; gold; 1,1dichloroethane acrylamide#; asulam; methyl isocyanate; pentachlorophenol (PCP); propylene oxide asbestos; Chromium; Electromagnetic fields; PAHs; Pesticides; atrazine; Carbamates; captan; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane^; dieldrin; lindane^; Organophosphates; crotoxyphos; dichlorvos^; methidathion; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; styrene^; tetrachloroethylene (PCE)^; trichloroethylene (TCE) 27; 29; 81; 89; 90; 92; 98; 107; 108; 116; 123; 186; 187; 202 # - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) * - general category including acute and chronic leukemia. + Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC), In addition to the pesticides listed, unspecified pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, and agricultural workers has been associated with leukemia. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times. Associations between a specific pesticide exposure and disease can not be made. Alopecia (hair loss) ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) Altered sex ratio Dermatology (Skin) Neurology Developmental; Genito-Urinary; Reproduction Developmental; Endocrine (Hormones); Reproduction Geriatrics; Neurology Hematology (Blood); Immunology selenium aluminum; Cycad nut; Ionizing radiation; lead; manganese; mercury; Pesticides; selenium; Solvents 80; 167; 203 50 boron; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); Dioxins/TCDD; Fungicides; mercury Estrogens/DES lead Organochlorine pesticides; PCBs Altered time to sexual maturation (accelerated or delayed puberty) Alzheimer's Anemia (including hemolytic) bisphenol A; Dioxins/TCDD; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordecone; DDT/DDE; PBBs; PCBs; vinclozolin; atrazine; octylphenol iron; lead; Pesticides; tellurium; aluminum; Solvents Anilines; arsine; benzene; copper; lead; Stibene (antimony); TNT (Trinitrotoluene) arsenic; cadmium; mercury; naphthalene; Stibene (antimony); trimellitic anhydride Angiosarcoma (hepatic) Liver; Oncology (cancer) Hematology (Blood) arsenic+; vinyl chloride+ Anabolic steroids; copper; thorium dioxide (Thorostat) arsenic; Ethylene glycols; gold; mercury; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; Hydrocarbons; Kerosene; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; dichlorvos; propoxur; TNT (Trinitrotoluene) Aplastic anemia benzene; Ionizing radiation methylhydrazine; Nitrosamines; Pesticides; chlordimeform/4-COT; metam sodium; propylene oxide; pentachlorophenol (PCP); urethane; vinyl bromide#; vinyl fluoride# bismuth; Dinitrophenols; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; DDT/DDE; lindane; Organophosphates; parathion; perchlorate 44; 46; 56; 80; 123; In families where fungicides were applied by the father, 142; 143; 202; 243; significantly fewer male children were born (44) An increase in 244 male fetal death has been observed due to methyl mercury in Minamata, Japan in the 1950s. 7; 45; 83; 88; 98; Some chemicals are associated with both delayed and early 237; 245; 246; 247; puberty. For lead, delays in puberty are most marked in African248; 249; 250 American and Mexican-American girls with blood lead concentrations 3 mg/dL 61; 80; 89; 203; 253 Pesticide exposures as defined by occupational exposure (vineyard worker, farmer, farm worker, animal breeder) has been associated with Alzheimers. Arsine gas is produced when acid comes into contact with a metal containing arsenic and is used in crystal formation and in the semiconductor industry. Lead causes an acquired deficiency in pyrimidine-5' nucleoidase and severe toxicity is seen in individuals with the hereditary form of this deficiency. Naphthalene toxicity occurs most frequently in individuals with G6PD deficiency. + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) 89; 122 There are large variations in susceptibility to aplastic anemia which are poorly understood. In addition to the pesticides listed, unspecified pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, and agricultural workers has been associated with aplastic anemia. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times and associations between a specific pesticide exposure and disease can not be made. Arrhythmias Cardio-vascular arsenic; antimony; carbon monoxide; Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); cyanide; Dihalomethanes; methylene chloride; Nitrates/Nitrites; Particulate air pollution (soot); Pesticides; Carbamates; Organophosphates; 1,1dichloroethane asbestos arsine; ethyl bromide; isopropyl chloride; lead; methyl bromide; Solvents; acetone; benzene; carbon tetrachloride; carbon disulfide; chloroform; 1,2-dichloroethane; ethyl chloride; methyl chloride; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; xylene barium; cadmium; cobalt; lanthanum; manganese; nickel; phosphorus 48 People with pre-existing coronary artery disease are more susceptible to the ischemic effects of carbon monoxide. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) and dihalomethanes are metabolized to carbon monoxide in the body. Organic nitrates exposure (mainly in the explosives industry) includes ammonium, sodium nitrate, ethylene glycol dinitrate, nitroglycerin, and TNT and can cause cardiotoxicity in the absence of heart disease. Sudden cardiac death has been reported in glue sniffers. Asbestosis Respiratory Asthma - allergic Allergy; Immunology; Acid anhydrides; acrylates; Respiratory Methacrylates; Amines; Ethanolamines; ethylenediamine; pphenylenediamine; Animal antigens; captafol; Chlorothalonil; colophony; Enzymes; amylase; papain; subtilase; Egg lysosyme; pepsin; trypsin; Epoxy resins; Fungal antigens; Insect antigens; Isocyanates; Latex; Metal fumes; aluminum; Chromium; cobalt; nickel; platinum; tungsten carbide; vanadium; Plant pollens; Plastic fumes; Plastic dusts; PVC; polypropylene; Wood dust; Grain dust; Fiber dust; glutaraldehyde Immunology; Respiratory Acids; Air pollution; Diesel exhaust; nitrogen dioxide; Particulate air pollution (soot); sulfur dioxide; ammonia; chlorine; Cotton dust; Ethylene amines; hydrogen sulfide; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) Air pollution; Diesel exhaust; ozone; aziridine; azodicarbonamide; Phthalates; senna; styrene Aldehydes; acetaldehyde; acrolein; formaldehyde; propionaldehyde; Coal dust; Diazonium salts; ethylene oxide; hexachlorophene; Persulfate salts; Phenols; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; Reactive dyes; sulfathiazole ; Tannic acid Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers that may progress despite discontinuation of exposure and can have a latency period of 10-30 years. The incidence of asbestosis has diminished markedly with protective measures. 5; 21; 148; 166; 183 Allergens causing allergic asthma can also cause allergic rhinitis. Over 250 agents have been documented to cause immunological occupational asthma, a few broad categories are included here. The haplotype HLA DQB1*0503 is associated with TDI asthma, while allele DQB1*0501 confers protection to TDI. The Th2 type of T helper cells has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing allergies and asthma. Air pollutants may act in conjunction with common allergens to increase sensitivity to other common allergens. Asthma - irritant chloramine; Hydrazines; Oil fly ash; osmium tetraoxide; ozone; Pesticides; Organophosphates; Carbamates; phosgene; 1,1dichloroethane benzene; caprolactam; chloroform; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); dimethyl sulfate; Fragrances; Phthalates; dibutyl phthalate (DBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate; tetrachloroisophthalonitrile; toluene 5; 8; 12; 21; 38; 39; Numerous agents have been associated with asthma - a few are 148; 166 included here. Regarding air pollutants, nitrogen and sulfer oxides may exacerbate asthma in individuals with the disease, but have not been found to cause asthma in healthy individuals. However diesel exhaust, a major source of PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide, has been causally associated with asthma. Ozone has been associated with both causing and exacerbating asthma. Risk of asthma is associated with both prenatal and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke, and is clearly dose-related, with rates increasing with more smoking family members and in the homes of heavy smokers. Cigarette smoke resembles diesel exhaust and industrial emissions, containing a similar mix of tiny particles, thousands of toxic chemicals, and numerous respiratory irritants. Exposure to cigarette smoke and to outdoor air pollution may therefore cause similar asthmatic responses. Autoimmune antibodies (positive ANA, anti-DNA, RF, etc.) Immunology; Allergy silica asbestos; mercury; Solvents; benzene; carbon tetrachloride; formaldehyde; trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE) cadmium; Chromium; copper; gold; lithium; Pesticides; Carbamates; chlorpyrifos; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Silicone/Parafin breast implants; UV radiation; vinyl chloride Pesticides; Organophosphates bisphenol A; Estrogens/DES 5; 9; 23; 77; 98; 169 Although the presence of auto-antibodies is a part of the diagnosis of autoimmune disease, the relevance of autoantibodies in otherwise health individuals is unknown. Mercuryinduced autoimmunity has a strong genetic component. Some strains of rats are completely resistant while others are exquisitely sensitive to mercury toxicity. Susceptibility has been linked to MHC and non-MHC genes. *Includes aggression, impulsivity, and delinquent behavior Behavioral problems* Benign prostatic hypertrophy Berylliosis Neurology; Pediatrics; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); nicotine Developmental cocaine; lead; mercury; PCBs Genito-Urinary; Geriatrics; Male Reproduction Respiratory; Immunology 58; 60; 80; 137 beryllium 13 Berryliosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease similar to sarcoidosis, secondary to chronic beryllium exposure. May also involve skin, liver, spleen, salivary glands, kidney, and bone. A genetic predisposition to chronic beryllium disease. has been observed in the MHC II leukocyte antigen marker haplotype, HLADPB1, with a glutamic acid residue at position 69. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis resulting from coal mine dust. B-dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN)* benzo(a)pyrene# (PAH's); chlornaphazine; Chlorophenols; Ionizing radiation; methylenedianiline; Solvents; otoluidine#; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts *used as a catalyst in the manufacture of polyurethane lead; antimony; asbestos; Chromium; p-cresidine^; 24; 52; 55; 84; 89; Diesel exhaust#; Nitrosamines; tetrachloroethylene 98; 197; 198; 199 (PCE)#; Pesticides; cacodylic acid; Carbamates; carbaryl; propoxur; dichloropropene; Organochlorine pesticides; ophenyl-phenol; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; bifenthrin; saccharin; Dioxins/TCDD + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) '*4-COT is the metabolite of chlordimeform Genetic differences in Nacetyltransferase, which detoxifies carcinogens, explain some variability in risk of disease. Individuals who are 'slow' acetylators have a greater susceptibility to bladder cancer than 'fast' acetylators. In addition to groups or individual pesticides listed, pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers and agricultural workers has been associated with bladder cancer. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times. A correlation between an individual pesticide and disease can not be made. Black Lung Disease Bladder (neurogenic) Bladder cancer Respiratory Neurology; GenitoUrinary Genito-Urinary; Oncology (cancer) Coal dust Aromatic amines; 4Aminobiphenyl+; auramine; B-naphthylamine+; benzidine+; MOCA#; arsenic+; Benzidine-derived dyes#; direct blue 6; direct black 38; direct brown 95; chlordimeform/4-COT*; Coal tars+; nitrobiphenyl; 1,1dichloroethane; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+; PAHs radium+ Bone cancer/Ewings sarcoma Musculo-skeletal; Oncology (cancer) Pesticides benzene; beryllium; PAHs; PCBs; vinyl chloride; fluoride Brain cancer (adult)* Oncology (cancer); Neurology Ionizing radiation Chromium; methylene chloride^ acrylonitrile; cadmium; Electromagnetic fields; ethylene oxide; iron; lead#; Oil mists; mercury; Solvents; benzene; carbon tetrachloride; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; xylene; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; atrazine; 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; hexachlorobenzene; Radiofrequency fields; vinyl chloride 36 + - Group 1 human carcinogen (IARC) Pesticide exposure in farmers and other occupations where diverse exposures to mixtures of pesticides can occur has been associated with sarcomas. In these studies, individual pesticides cannot be identified. Parental 35; 40; 66; 81; 84; *Includes gliomas, meningiomas, astrocytomas and other brain 89; 98; 173; 202 and CNS tumors. ' + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) An increased incidence of brain ca has been observed in agriculture workers and farmers. Brain cancer - childhood Neurology; Oncology (cancer); Pediatrics Ionizing radiation Solvents; Pesticides; dichlorvos; lindane; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Aromatic amines; Chlorophenols; Dyes; Electromagnetic fields; Nitrosamines; Pesticides; carbaryl; diazinon; Phenoxyacetic herbicides 35; 36; 40; 89; 202 Parental exposure to aromatic amines in dyes and pigments, ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and pesticide exposure have been associated with an increased risk of childhood brain cancer. Parental exposure to EMF, paints or inks, and pesticides has been associated with neuroblastoma. In addition to groups or individual pesticides listed, pesticide exposure in the home or by parents at their occupations has also been associated with childhood brain ca. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides and a correlation between an individual pesticide and disease can not be made. + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Occupational exposure to vehicular exhaust was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in males. Cigarette smoke, especially second-hand smoke, contains high levels of PAHs. Eleven constituents of cigarette smoke have been found to cause mammary gland carcinogens in animals. These chemicals include benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, 2-toluidine, 4aminobiphenyl,2-amino-3-methylimidazoquinoline, 2-amino-1methyl-6-phenylimidazopyridine, butadiene, isoprene, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, and benzene. % - secondhand smoke exposure in pre-menopausal women has been associated with breast cancer, but not in post-menopausal women. *-Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A1, may predispose some women to breast ca after PCB exposure. Women with a genetic variant in the NAT enzyme system (slow acetylators!) have a 70% increased risk of breast cancer if they smoke. In contrast, the opposite genetic variant, or fast acetylators!, have a doubling of breast cancer risk from exposure to second hand smoke. Breast cancer Endocrine (Hormones); Female Reproduction; Oncology (cancer) Estrogens/DES+; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Ionizing radiation; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand)% Aromatic amines; B-naphthylamine; benzidine; ethylene oxide; PAHs; PCBs*; Progestins^; Solvents; tetrachloroethylene (PCE) acrylamide#; acrylonitrile; Dioxins/TCDD; 30; 33; 34; 41; 43; Electromagnetic fields; Hydrazines^; Solvents; benzene; 80; 81; 98; 131; 1,3-butadiene; 1,2-dibromoethane; 1,1-dichloroethane; 180; 202 1,2-dichloroethane^; 1,2-dichloropropane; methylene chloride^; trichloroethylene (TCE); 1,2,3trichloropropane; Pesticides; Agent Orange; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin; benzene; chlordane; DDT/DDE; dieldrin; mirex^; Herbicides; atrazine; cyanazine; oryzalin; propazine; simazine; tribenuron methyl; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; PhIP (2-amino-1methyl-6-phenylimidazol(4,5-b)pyridine); styrene; vinyl chloride Bronchiolitis obliterans Respiratory diacetyl; Irritant gases; Nitrogen oxides; chlorine; phosgene; ozone; hydrogen sulfide; sulfur dioxide ammonia; chlorine; Chromium@; hydrochloric acid; mercury Nylon fibers; Polyamide-amine dyes; acramin-FWN; thionyl chloride 20; 149; 150 Acramin-FWN is found in paint aerosols that are used in the textile industry. It has been associated with an epidemic of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Dieacetyl is a food flavoring used to impart a buttery flavor to popcorn. Numerous agents have been associated with bronchitis, including the chemical agents listed here. @ - hexavalent chromium compounds Bronchitis - acute Respiratory beryllium; manganese; ozone; tellurium arsenic; carbon black; Grain dust; Solvents; PCBs; phosgene; 1,1dichloroethane; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; vanadium Pesticides 89; 148 Bronchitis - chronic Geriatrics; Respiratory ammonia; aluminum; Coal dust; Isocyanates; Metals; antimony; iron oxide; osmium; vanadium; Oil mists; Organic dusts; Cotton dust; Hemp dust; Jute dust; Grain dust; Wood dust; Particulate air pollution (soot); Cement dust; silica; Fire smoke; Engine exhaust; sulfur dioxide; Welding fumes; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) 12; 88; 89; 168 Brown lung disease (byssinosis) Carcinoid Cardiac congenital malformations* Respiratory; Immunology Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) Pediatrics; Developmental; Birth defects Cotton dust; Flax dust; Hemp dust; Jute dust; Sisal dust lead; Solvents ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Anesthetic gases; Solvents; trichloroethylene (TCE); Tobacco smoke 14; 29 Has been applied to describe both acute and chronic response to exposure. benzene; carbon monoxide; 1,2-dichloroethane; Ethylene 57; 58; 68; 79; 89; glycol ethers; Mineral oils; Pesticides; atrazine; 110; 202 Insecticides; Rodenticides; Organophosphates; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts *Cardiac malformations include common truncus, transposition of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, anomalies of the pulmonary valve, tricuspid and aortic valve anomalies, hypoplastic left heart, coarctation of the aorta, ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, interrupted aortic arch, anomalies of the pulmonary artery and an Ebstein anomaly. Trihalomethanes, including trichloroethylene, are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection, usually by chlorine. Maternal pesticide exposure in the home or occupationally (farmers, agricultural workers) has been associated with CV malformations. Genetic polymorphisms in the solvent-metabolizing enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase, has been found to mediate the risks of organic solvents for the cardiac malformations, pulmonic valve stenosis and atrial septal defects. Cigarette smoking has been associated with CV malformations inconsistently, and in a sub-set of older mothers or those with a h/o miscarriage. Cardiomyopathy Cataracts Cardio-vascular; carbon monoxide; cobalt Geriatrics Ophthomology (Eye); lead; UV radiation Geriatrics Neurology; Pediatrics; mercury Developmental Cardio-vascular; Geriatrics; Neurology Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Female Reproduction; DES+; Tobacco Smoke Genito-Urinary; (Active smoking) Oncology (cancer) Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer); Pediatrics benzene+; Ionizing radiation+ arsenic; cadmium; lead ethylene oxide; Infrared radiation; Ionizing radiation; Microwave radiation; naphthalene; Tobacco smoke beryllium; Solvents Chlorophenols; Dioxins/TCDD; phosphine 44; 162 51 Cerebral palsy Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) Cervical cancer 49; 60 200 Pesticides; dibromochloropropane (DBCP)^; tetrachloroethylene (PCE)#; trichloroethylene (TCE) 29; 81; 117; 179 # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Organic solvent exposure in dry cleaners and pesticide exposure in applicators has been associated with cervical ca. + - Group 1 human carcinogen (IARC) Parental exposure to ionizing radiation, metal dusts, organic solvents, pesticides, and hydrocarbons have been associated with increased rates of childhood leukemia. Also, childhood exposure to pesticides applied indo Air pollution; Estrogens/DES; Particulate air pollution (soot) Solvents; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Childhood Leukemias Agent Orange; Pesticides; Metal Electromagnetic fields; Air pollution; Vehicle exhaust; dusts; Chlorinated solvents; carbon Pesticides; chlordane; dichlorvos; propoxur; radon tetrachloride; trichloroethylene (TCE); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) 32; 35; 36; 111; 113; 187; 202 Chloracne Dermatology (Skin) PBBs; PCBs; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; diuron; linuron; Organochlorine pesticides; DDT/DDE; Polyhalogenated naphthalenes; PCDFs; Dioxins/TCDD pentachlorophenol (PCP) 11; 89 Choanal atresia Cholangiocarcinoma Pediatrics; Developmental; Birth defects trichloroethylene (TCE) 57 Nasal defect--blockage of the nasal airway by bony or membranous tissue. Associated with trichloroethylene contamination of wells in Woburn, MA. ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Cholestasis Liver; Gastrointestinal Estrogens/DES; manganese; Ethylene amines; vinylidene chloride 2,4-D; paraquat methylenedianiline Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; Solvents beryllium; lead; cadmium 1,4-dichlorobenzene; Chromium; carbon disulfide; Solvents; phosphine; silver; uranium copper; mercury; silica; Organotins; paraquat arsenic; halothane; Solvents; trichloroethylene (TCE) formaldehyde; Hydrazines; N-nitrosodimethylamine; Pesticides; selenium; trichloroethane 1; 52; 144 47 191 A medically unexplained syndrome characterized by disabiling fatigue accompanied by infectious, rheumatological, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The causes are unknown but hypothesized to be multiple. Cadmium exposure in cigarette smokers is double (see acute tubular necrosis comments). Chronic renal disease from beryllium exposure occurs with multi-organ involvement (berylliosis). 47 Organic solvent exposure in shipyard workers, painters, and printers has been associated with cirrhosis. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Immunology; Neurology; Psychiatry Chronic renal disease Renal (kidney); Geriatrics Cirrhosis Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span)/Mental Retardation/Developmenta l Delay Liver; Gastrointestinal Aflatoxins; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); carbon tetrachloride; Chlorinated naphthalenes; PCBs; tetrachloroethane; TNT (Trinitrotoluene) Developmental; carbon disulfide; cocaine; Neurology; Pediatrics ethyl alcohol (ethanol); lead; mercury; Tobacco smoke; nicotine; PCBs carbon monoxide; Nitrates/Nitrites; PCBs; Solvents; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE); styrene; toluene; xylene; Pesticides; Carbamates; methyl bromide; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; pentachlorophenol (PCP); 1,1dichloroethane; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) sulfuryl fluoride; aluminum; arsenic; cadmium; dichloropropene; dieldrin; Dioxins/TCDD; fluoride; manganese; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos; diazinon; Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) 8; 49; 58; 59; 60; Cognitive impairment in children may occur as a result of 61; 88; 89; 98; 137; exposures in utero or in early childhood during brain 202; 203 development. Metabolic studies have shown that infants absorb more manganese than adults. Manganese is added to infant formula. The effects of lead on I.Q. are non-linear and proportionally greater at lower concentrations. Canfield et al. found associated declines in I.Q. greatest at lifetime average blood lead concentrations less than 10 mg/dL. An estimated loss of 7.4 IQ points was calculated for lifetime average blood lead concentrations from 1 up to 10 mg/dL and a loss of 2.5 IQ points for concentrations 10-20 mg/dL Colo-rectal cancer Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) alachlor; Aromatic amines; Chlorination byproducts; Ionizing radiation; Solvents; 1,1dichloroethane acrylonitrile; asbestos; Chlorophenols; Nitrosamines; PCBs; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin/dieldrin; DDT/DDE; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; PAHs; PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol(4,5b)pyridine); Dioxins/TCDD; toluene; xylene 34; 36; 81; 89; 98; Organic solvent exposure in commercial pressmen has been 118; 119; 123; 173; associated with colo-rectal cancer. Limited data showing 198; 199 association of colo-rectal ca in children with insecticide use. In addition to groups or individual pesticides listed, pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers and agricultural workers has been associated with colorectal ca. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times and a correlation between an individual pesticide and disease can not be made. 145 44; 89; 104; 110; 138; 202 In addition to individual pesticides that have been identified in some epidemiological studies, maternal pesticide exposure in the home or occupationally (farmers, agricultural workers) has been associated with birth defects. The design of the majority of these studies were not able to identify specific pesticides associated with birth defects . There are over 3,000 chemical agents which have been implicated as causal agents in allergic contact dermatitis, only broad categories are listed here. Rhus antigens are poisons oak, ivy or sumac Color vision disturbance Neurology; Ophthomology (Eye) Anesthetic gases; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Ionizing radiation carbon disulfide; Solvents arsenic; carbon monoxide; Ethylene glycol ethers; mercury; Solvents; Tobacco smoke ethyl acetate; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Organophosphate pesticides; styrene; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); toluene bisphenol A; carbon disulfide; Chromic acid; ethylene oxide; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; carbaryl; metam sodium; methyl bromide; vinyl chloride Congenital malformations - Pediatrics; general Developmental; Birth defects Contact dermatitis Allergic Dermatology (Skin); Immunology; Allergy Antiseptics; Aromatic amines; Cement; Chromic acid; colophony; Cutting oils; Dyes; Epoxy resins; formaldehyde; Fragrances; Glues; Isothiazolins; Lanolins; Latex; Metals; Pesticides; potassium dichromate; Preservatives; Rubber products; Rhus antigens aminotriazole; Abrasive dusts; Chromic acid; Cement; Coal tars; Detergents/Soaps; ethylene oxide; Metals; antimony; arsenic; Chromium; cobalt; nickel; mercury; zinc; Mild acids/alkalis; Pesticides; Solvents 11; 50 Contact dermatitis Irritant Dermatology (Skin); Immunology 11; 50 Over 65,000 chemical agents have been implicated as causal agents in irritant contact dermatitis, only broad categories are listed here. COPD (chronic obstructive Geriatrics; Respiratory Coal dust; Cement dust; pulmonary disease) Cotton dust; Particulate air pollution (soot); vanadium; Wood dust; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) Coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis Cardio-vascular; Geriatrics lead; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); carbon disulfide; Particulate air pollution (soot) ethyl alcohol (ethanol); toluene antimony; cadmium; Chromium; Grain dust; Irritant gases; Metal fumes; ozone; silica; sodium hydroxide; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) carbon monoxide; Dinitrotoluenes; mercury; TNT (Trinitrotoluene); Dioxins/TCDD; arsenic; cadmium arsenic; ammonia; chlorine; manganese; nickel carbonyl; 12; 148 nitrogen dioxide; sulfur dioxide Cement dust, chlorine, coal dust, grain dust, cotton/hemp/flax dust, and sulfur dioxide have all been shown to act additively or multiplicatively with tobacco smoke to cause disease. aluminum; Nitrates/Nitrites; PAHs; allylamine; Baminopropionitrile; antimony; tungsten carbide 48; 80; 109; 115; 123; 148; 252 Organic nitrates exposure (mainly in the explosives industry) includes ammonium, sodium nitrate, ethylene glycol dinitrate, nitroglycerin, and TNT and can cause cardiotoxicity in the absence of heart disease. *Includes microcephaly, macrocephaly, gingival hyperplasia, wide saggital suture, facial edema, and exophthalmos. * includes visual-spatial skills, gross motor skills, gait and movement disorders Cranio- Facial malformations* Decreased Coordination/ Dysequilibrium* Pediatrics; Developmental; Birth defects Neurology; Pediatrics; Developmental Ethylene glycol ethers; Ionizing radiation; mercury; Solvents; PCBs acrylamide; carbon disulfide; aluminum; manganese; methyl lead; mercury bromide; Solvents; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordecone; Organophosphates; trichloroethylene (TCE) cadmium; carbon disulfide; cyanazine; lead; methylazoxymethanol acetate; Organophosphate pesticides; tetrachloroethylene (PCE) styrene; toluene 46; 49; 59; 60; 104 58; 98 Decreased vision (includes blindness, retinopathy, optic neuropathy) Delayed growth Dementia Dermatomyositis Diabetes - Type I Neurology; carbon monoxide; methanol Ophthomology (Eye); Developmental Musculo-skeletal; Pediatrics; Developmental Neurology; Geriatrics Dermatology (Skin); Immunology Cardio-vascular; Immunology; Endocrine (Hormones) Cardio-vascular; Geriatrics; Endocrine (Hormones) Cardio-vascular; Metabolism Endocrine (Hormones); Female Reproduction; GenitoUrinary Developmental; Female Reproduction; Genito-Urinary arsenic ethyl alcohol (ethanol) carbon disulfide; copper; Fungicides; methylenedianiline; osmium tetraoxide; Pesticides; methyl bromide; mercury; nCarbamates; carbofuran; Organochlorine pesticides; Hexane; Organotins Organophosphates; 1,1-dichloroethane lead; mercury; PCBs; toluene aluminum; carbon monoxide; thallium N-3-pyridylmethyl-N'-p-nitrophenyl urea (Vacor) Dioxins/TCDD; Tobacco smoke manganese; pentachlorophenol (PCP); xylene tetrachloroethylene (PCE) silica; UV radiation Cow's milk proteins; Gluten; Nitrates/Nitrites; Nitrates/Nitrites; Nitrosamines; PCBs DDT/DDE; iron 49; 58; 98; 178 Methanol toxicity is due to formaldehyde and formate metabolic products. 7; 46; 49; 58 159 23; 77 3; 4; 17 Vacor is a rodenticide. Diabetes - Type II 3; 4; 19; 123 Dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia Early onset menopause carbon disulfide; Dioxins/TCDD; PCBs Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) 80; 163 DDT/DDE; carbon disulfide; Pesticides; Organophosphates; PAHs 98; 154; 223 Endometriosis PCBs chlorodiphenyl ether; Dioxins/TCDD; Ionizing radiation; methoxychlor; 1,1-dichloroethane 42; 69; 80; 135; 195; 223; 224 Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome Immunology 3-(Phenylamino)alanine 9 Epidemic in New Mexico, 1989, caused by contamination of dietary supplement, L-tryptophan, with 3-(Phenylamino)alanine. Mortality rate 2.7%. Symptoms resembled connective tissue disease with myalgias, eosinophilia, and scleroderma-like skin disease. Etiology and syndrome similar to toxic oil syndrome. HLA-DR4 phenotype associated with chronic disease. 56 DMAPN - used as a catalyst in the manufacturing of polyurethane 11 81; 98 + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). Organic solvent exposure in dry cleaners has been associated with esophageal ca, individual chemicals cannot be identified in these studies. Pesticide ex Erectile dysfunction Erythema multiforme Esophageal cancer Neurology; GenitoUrinary; Male Reproduction Dermatology (Skin) Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) carbon disulfide; Blead; manganese; mercury; vinyl chloride; TNT dimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN) (Trinitrotoluene) Organophosphates acrylamide^; Chromium; Pesticides ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+ ethyl alcohol (ethanol); toluene Anesthetic gases; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Ethylene glycol ethers; ethylene oxide; Ionizing radiation; Tobacco smoke; nicotine; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) Nitrosamines; Solvents; tetrachloroethylene (PCE)#; PAHs; silica Solvents Air pollution; carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; sulfur dioxide; Particulate air pollution (soot); arsenic; carbon disulfide; DES; formaldehyde; lead; methyl isocyanate; mercury; Solvents; chloroform; methylene chloride; Nmethylpyrrolidone (NMP); tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; xylene; Pesticides; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); Fungicides; Dithiocarbamates; Herbicides; glyphosate; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Triazene herbicides; hexachlorobenzene; Organochlorine pesticides; DDT/DDE; paraquat; Triazene herbicides; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts; bisphenol A; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal solvent syndrome Fetotoxicity (Miscarriage/spontaneous abortion, stillbirth) Pediatrics; Developmental; Birth defects Developmental; Pediatrics; Reproduction Gasoline glyphosate; hexachlorobenzene; metam sodium; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Thiocarbamates; vanadium; cadmium; Phthalates; acrylamide; antimony; carbon tetrachloride; Chromic acid; Dioxins/TCDD; Electromagnetic fields; hydrogen sulfide; manganese; nickel; PCBs; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; Arsenical pesticides; chlordecone; cyanazine; dinocap; dinoseb 58; 60 42; 56; 57; 67; 68; 71; 98; 114; 145; 146; 165; 202; 206; 210; 211; 213; 215; 219; 226; 228; 229 Anesthetic gases include halothane, nitrous oxide and ethane. Toluene, nitrous oxide, and ethylene oxide exposure in a male have been associated with miscarriage in the female partner. Trihalomethanes, including bromodichloromethane, are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection (usually by chlorine). Pesticide exposure occupationally such as in farming and pesticide application in the home has been associated with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. While some studies have investigated particular pesticides, most studies do not identify individual pesticide or classes of pesticides. Flock workers disease Gallbladder cancer Respiratory Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) Nylon fibers thorium dioxide (Thorostat) 15; 20 Dinitrotoluenes^; Organochlorine pesticides; benzene; DDT/DDE; PCBs 120 ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). In addition to individual pesticides listed, exposure to pesticides by applicators, manufacturers and agricultural workers has been associated with gallbladder ca. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times and a correlation between individual pesticides and disease can not be made. 68; 76; 89; 110; Maternal pesticide exposure in agricultural workers has been 174; 202; 204; 210; associated with cryptorchidism. Paternal pesticide exposure has 219; 233; 234; 236; been associated with cryptorchidism as well. 238 Genito-urinary malformations (includes male and female) Developmental; Genito-Urinary; Pediatrics; Reproduction DES Pesticides; Tobacco smoke Solvents; diisononyl phthalate; Ethylene glycol ethers; trichloroethylene (TCE); linuron; toluene; heptachlor epoxide; hexachlorobenzene; Dioxins/TCDD; bisphenol A; arsenic; cadmium; Estrogens/DES; Pesticides; atrazine; chlordecone; molinate; vinclozolin; Phthalates; benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP); dibutyl phthalate (DBP); di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)/MEHP Glomerulonephritis Gout Granulomatous disease (liver) Gulf War Syndrome Renal (kidney); Immunology; Pediatrics Musculo-skeletal; lead Geriatrics Liver; Gastrointestinal Immunology; Neurology; Psychiatry fluoride; gold; lead; mercury; Solvents; silica carbon disulfide; Hard metal; paraquat 23; 52; 160 Hard metal is an alloy of tungsten carbide and cobalt. beryllium; copper Cement dust; mica; silica Pesticides; diethyl-m-toluamine (DEET); lindane; permethrin; pyridostigmine bromide 47 190 The case definition of Gulf War Syndrome remains somewhat broad as do the potential causes. Symptoms may include chronic fatigue, joint and muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some studies implicate co-exposures to insecticides and a nervegas protective agent (PB) as contributory. There is evidence that pesticides, caffeine and adrenergic agents potentiate the effects of PB. Hard metal are alloys of tantalum, titanium, and tungsten carbide. Hard metal disease Hashimoto's (Autoimmune) thyroiditis Hearing loss Respiratory; cobalt Immunology Immunology; Endocrine (Hormones) Neurology; Geriatrics; carbon disulfide; ethyl Ear, Nose, and Throat alcohol (ethanol); Metals; arsenic; cobalt; lead; lithium; mercury; thorium; Noise DES; iodine Anilines; carbon monoxide; DDT/DDE; cyanide; dimethyl sulfoxide; Dinitrophenols; iodine; Jet fuel; JP-4; Solvents; benzene; carbon tetrachloride; trichloroethylene (TCE); styrene; toluene; xylene; Organotins; propylene glycol arsenic; captafol#; PCBs#; thorium dioxide (Thorostat); trichloroethylene (TCE)#; vinyl chloride Silicone/Parafin breast implants PCBs 22; 23 49; 88; 184 Co-exposure to noise and solvents may have a combined effect on hearing loss. Hepatocellular cancer (Liver cancer) Liver; Oncology (cancer) aflatoxin B1 (Aflatoxins)+; Androgens; Nnitrosodimethylamine; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Hydrocarbons benzene; p-dichlorobenzene^; 1,4-dioxane^; 29; 47; 81; 89; 131 Dinitrotoluenes^; Furans^; Hydrazines^; isoprene^; MTBE; Nitrosamines; PBBs^; Pesticides; chlordimeform/4COT; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); dichloropropene; Fungicides; benomyl; cyproconazole; ethylene thiourea (ETU); furancarboxamide; hexachlorobenzene; iprodione; prochloraz; propiconazole; tebuconazole; triadimefon; triadimenol; uniconazole; Herbicides; acifluorfen; amitrole; bromacil; bromoxynil; chloramben; dichlobenil; diclofop-methyl; furmecyclox; haloxyfop-methyl; lactofen; metolachlor; nitrofen; oxadiazon; oxadixyl; oxyfluorofen; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; pronamide; quizalofop-ethyl; triallate; metam sodium; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin; chlorbenzilate; chlordane^; heptachlor^; DDT/DDE^; dicofol; endrin; Halogenated hydrocarbons^; lindane^; mirex^; toxaphene; Organophosphates; acephate; tetrachlorovinphos; pentachlorophenol (PCP); permethrin; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride^; chloroform^; formalin; methylene chloride^; tetrachloroethylene (PCE)^; TCDD^; tetrafluoroethylene^; vinyl bromide#; vinyl fluoride hexachlorobenzene; mirex; MTBE 126 + - Group 1 human carcinogen (IARC), # - Group 2A human carcinogen (IARC), ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). Note: many chemicals cause liver cancer in laboratory animals and the list here is incomplete. Hepatoma Hepatoportal Sclerosis Liver; Gastrointestinal Estrogens/DES Liver; Gastrointestinal arsenic; thorium dioxide (Thorostat); vinyl chloride A rare form of non-cirrhotic periportal fibrosis resulting in portal hypertension. Hodgkin's Disease (lymphoma) Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer) Chlorophenols; Phenoxyacetic herbicides^; Dioxins/TCDD; Agent Orange Creosotes; ethylene oxide; Solvents; trichloroethylene (TCE); Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin; DDT/DDE^; lindane; 1,1-dichloroethane 29; 36; 84; 98; 123; ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). In addition to groups or 187 individual pesticides listed, pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers and agricultural workers has been associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times and a correlation between an individual pesticide and disease can not be made. 42; 45; 56; 75; 80; Herbicide applicators and fungicide use in males hs been 89; 102; 104; 134; associated with changes in FSH and LH serum levels. 143; 165; 171; 194; 202; 204; 210; 219; 221; 222; 230; 231; 240; 242 Hormonal changes (levels of circulating sex hormones - FSH/LH, Inhibin, and/or estrogens, progesterones, androgens) Endocrine (Hormones); Female Reproduction; Male Reproduction dibromochloropropane (DBCP); ethyl alcohol (ethanol) 2-bromopropane; lead; Pesticides; Organophosphates; parathion; methamidophos; Fungicides; vinclozolin; Dioxins/TCDD; vinyl chloride; cadmium; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); xylene; toluene; Phthalates mercury; octylphenol; PBBs; PCBs; styrene; acrylamide; atrazine; bisphenol A; carbon disulfide; DDT/DDE; Ethylene glycol ethers; manganese Hyperkeratosis/ Hyperpigmentation Hypertension (High blood pressure) Hypoactivity Immune suppression * Dermatology (Skin) Cardio-vascular; Geriatrics Neurology; Psychiatry arsenic; Coal tars; Coal tars; Asphalt; Creosotes; Petrochemicals; hexachlorobenzene carbon disulfide; lead arsenic; carbon monoxide; thallium PCBs cadmium; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; DDT/DDE; mercury; 2; 48; 51; 80; 82; PCBs; Dioxins/TCDD; vinyl chloride 123 cadmium; PCBs; styrene arsenic; beryllium; cadmium; Chromium; copper; Estrogens/DES; DES; Diesel exhaust; Nitrosamines; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; Pesticides; atrazine; hexachlorobenzene; Organotins; tributyl tin oxide; triphenyltin; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4-D; platinum; silica; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; Ethylene glycol ethers; formaldehyde; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); toluene; trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); sulfur dioxide; titanium dioxide; urethane; vinyl chloride 22; 23; 60; 77; 89; 98; 125; 171; 202 Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with hypertension. Allergy; Immunology; benzene; Ionizing radiation; Oncology (cancer) Dioxins/TCDD; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); UV radiation; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) asbestos; PAHs; benzo(a)pyrene; lead; mercury; methyl isocyanate; nickel; nitrogen dioxide; PBBs; PCBs; PCDDs; PCDFs; Pesticides; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos; dichlorvos; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; Carbamates; aldicarb; phosgene; pentachlorophenol (PCP) * Broad non-specific category that includes decreased levels of circulating immune cells (including white blood cells), decreased levels of circulating antibodies, altered cell function, decreased immune response, decreased resistance to infection, and increased tumor susceptibility. In mice, allelic variation in the Ah receptor has been shown to confer different sensitivities to TCDD. At high concentrations, metals usually exert immunosuppresive effects; however, at lower concentrations immunoenhancement has been observed. A combination of osteomalacia and osteoporosis caused by the consumption of cadmium contaminated rice in + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen (IARC) Itai-itai disease Laryngeal cancer Ear, Nose, and Throat; Oncology (cancer); Respiratory Dermatology (Skin) cadmium ethyl alcohol (ethanol); PAHs; sulfuric acid+; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Mineral oils Catechols; Creosotes; Hydroquinones; Alkyl phenols cocaine; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); nicotine; Tobacco smoke; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); 1,1dichloroethane asbestos; diethyl sulfate#; Leather dust; Mustard gas; nickel; Wood dust ethylene oxide Air pollution; carbon monoxide; Particulate air pollution (soot); arsenic; DES; lead; mercury; nicotine; Noise; Solvents; toluene; PCBs; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; Herbicides; atrazine; cyanazine; metolachlor; Organochlorine pesticides; DDT/DDE; lindane; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos; diazinon; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts Acid aerosols; Aromatic amines; Chlorophenols; Coal dust; copper; dimethyl sulfate#; epichlorohydrin#; formaldehyde; Solvents; Nitrosamines; NNK; PAHs; benz(a)anthracene#; dibenz(a,h)anthracene# acetaldehyde^; formaldehyde; Pesticides; Agent Orange; 28; 187 Petrochemicals; vinyl chloride Carbamates; carbyne carbon tetrachloride; ethylene oxide; Nmethylpyrrolidone (NMP); Perfluorinated acids; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4,5-T; Dioxins/TCDD; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE); 1,1dichloroethane 11 56; 57; 58; 60; 67; 89; 103; 106; 114; 145; 148; 166; 172; 202 Leukoderma (hypopigmentation) Low birth weight/Small for Pediatrics; Gestational Age/IntraReproduction; Uterine Growth Developmental Retardation Trihalomethanes are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection, usually by chlorine. Carbon tetrachloride, Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene as contaminants of drinking water Lung cancer Oncology (cancer); Respiratory aluminum; arsenic+; asbestos+; attapulgite; PAHs; benzo(a)pyrene#; beryllium+; cadmium+; Chloromethyl ethers+; chromium (VI)+; Coal tars+; Diesel exhaust#; Ionizing radiation; Mineral oils+; Mustard gas+; nickel+; Particulate air pollution (soot); radon+; silica+; Particulate air pollution (soot)+; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand)+; uranium; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+ daminozide (Alar); diazinon; dibromochloropropane (DBCP)^; dichloropropene; Herbicides; Agent Orange; metolachlor; paraquat; pendimethalin; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane^; DDT/DDE^; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; cypermethrin; permethrin; terrazole; styrene^; Talc; Dioxins/TCDD^; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE); tetranitromethane^; urethane; vinyl chloride; acrylonitrile^; acrylamide; antimony^; benzene; bromoform; Ceramic fibers^; cobalt^; 1,2dichloroethane^; ethylene oxide; fluoride; formaldehyde; Glasswool^; Rockwool^; Slagwool^; Hydrazines^; hydrochloric acid`; isoprene^; lead#; methylene chloride^; Nitrobenzenes; nitrosomorpholine; Pesticides; cacodylic acid; Carbamates; chlorpyrifos 21; 29; 31; 65; 81; + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, 89; 98; 123; 164; ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen, ` - Group 3 human carcinogen 166; 173; 176; 187; (IARC). 202 NNN and NNK are tobacco specific nitrosamines. In addition to groups or individual pesticides listed, pesticide exposure Lymphoma (nonHodgkin's) Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer) benzene; 1,3-butadiene#; Dioxins/TCDD+ Aromatic amines; Chlorophenols; Creosotes; Ionizing radiation; Solvents; carbon disulfide; carbon tetrachloride^; trichloroethylene (TCE)#; tetrachloroethylene (PCE)#; PCBs; Pesticides; Agent Orange; Carbamates; carbaryl; dicamba; Fungicides; captan; Organophosphates; dichlorvos; malathion; Insecticides; lindane; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin; DDT/DDE^; 2,4-D; MCPA; mecoprop; Chlorophenols^; Phenoxyacetic herbicides^; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) asbestos; MTBE; 1,2-dichloroethane^; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; Herbicides; alachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; Organochlorine pesticides; aldrin; dieldrin; chlordane; heptachlor^; lindane; toxaphene; UV radiation; Vehicle exhaust 26; 27; 29; 36; 84; + - Group 1 human carcinogen,# - Group 2A human 89; 98; 123; 126; carcinogen,^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). 127; 128; 133; 177; 187; 202 Parental exposure to ionizing radiation and pesticides have been associated with NHL in children. Macular degeneration Melanoma (skin cancer) Ophthomology (Eye); Geriatrics Dermatology (Skin); UV radiation Oncology (cancer); Ear, Nose, and Throat Tobacco smoke UV radiation Agent Orange; asbestos; carbon tetrachloride; formaldehyde; PAHs; PCBs; Pesticides 11; 84; 98; 140; 188 Pesticide, carbon tetrachloride, asbestos, and formaldehyde exposure have been associated with intra-ocular melanomas. Pesticide exposure in applicators and farm workers has been associated with melanoma. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times and a correlation between an individual pesticide and disease can not be made. 42; 70; 80; 98; 112; Menstrual disorders includes abnormal bleeding: 175; 193; 207; 210; hypermenorrhea/menorrhagia, ammenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, 212; 219 irregular cycles/metorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods) Endocrine Ionizing radiation (Hormones); Female Reproduction; GenitoUrinary benzene; 2-bromopropane; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Dioxins/TCDD; lead; mercury; Solvents; carbon disulfide; formaldehyde; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); toluene; xylene; PCBs; Pesticides; hexachlorobenzene; Organochlorine pesticides; DDT/DDE; lindane; chlordecone; toxaphene; Organophosphates; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts; Fungicides; maneb; mancozeb; Herbicides; atrazine; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); Estrogens/DES TNT (Trinitrotoluene); Phthalates; antimony; bisphenol A; boron; cadmium; Petrochemicals; styrene; thallium Mesothelioma Metal fume fever Methemoglobinemia Respiratory; Oncology asbestos+; erionite+ (cancer) Respiratory; Immunology Hematology (Blood) magnesium; zinc oxide Ionizing radiation; zeolite copper Nitrobenzenes; nitroethane; Nitrotoluenes; p-dichlorobenzene; toluidine; 1,1-dichloroethane beryllium; Ceramic fibers; ethylene oxide; nickel; propylene oxide; silica; Talc arsenic; boron; cadmium; manganese; nickel; tin; titanium Chromic acid 15 + - Group 1 human carcinogen. Latency can be 30-50 years after asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma rates due to asbestos are expected to peak 2010-2030. 16 Acute, self-limiting flu-like illness common in welders. Anilines are fat-soluble and readily penetrate intact skin through clothing and also can be inhaled as vapor. Chlorate salts are used primarily in pesticides and herbicides. Prenatal exposure to MeHg resulting in MR, CP, microcephaly and seizures. Minamata disease Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Anilines; Chlorate salts; copper; naphthalene; Nitrates/Nitrites; TNT (Trinitrotoluene) Neurology; Pediatrics; mercury Developmental Immunology; Neurology; Psychiatry Pesticides; Solvents; Cleaning agents; Fragrances; Vehicle exhaust Multiple myeloma Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer) benzene; Ionizing radiation Dioxins/TCDD; Pesticides; Arsenical Agent Orange; asbestos; DDT/DDE; Fungicides; Heavy pesticides; Phenoxyacetic herbicides metals; Solvents; trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); Petrochemicals 151 A generalized, non-organ specific collection of symptoms that recur and abate in response to stimuli, often at very low levels and triggered by chemicals and olfactory stimuli. Substances listed are triggers for symptoms. The pathophysiology of MCS is not well understood. 27; 81; 84; 89; 98; Organic solvent exposure in painters has been associated with 123; 131; 187 multiple myeloma. In addition to the pesticides listed, unspecified pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, and agricultural workers has been associated with multiple myeloma. In these situations, the individual is exposed to mixtures of pesticides or different pesticides at different times. Associations between a specific pesticide exposure and disease can not be made. 72; 73; 74; 77 A reduced risk of MS mortality has been shown in occupations with exposure to sunlight. Occupational solvent exposure has been associated with MS. A chronic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (non-Hodgkins). This condition is associated with chromosomal aberrations, especially deletions in chromosomes 5 and 7. Damage to these chromosome has been induced in vitro (test tube) using benzene metabolites on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Pesticides and organic solvents have also been postulated to cause aberrations in chromosomes 5 and 7. Occupational exposure to solvents (paints, varnishes, solvents and glues), pesticides (insecticides, weed killers), and petroleum products (diesels, petrols, oils, greases, dyes, inks and colourings) have been associated with MDS. People with pre-existing heart disease are more susceptible to the ischemic effects of carbon monoxide. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) and dihalomethanes are metabolized to carbon monoxide in the body. Organic nitrates exposure (mainly in the explosives industry) includes ammonium, sodium nitrate, ethylene glycol dinitrate, nitroglycerin, and TNT and can cause cardiotoxicity in the absence of heart disease. Multiple Sclerosis Immunology; Neurology; Immunology; Musculoskeletal; Neurology Dermatology (Skin); Oncology (cancer) Hematology (Blood); Oncology (cancer) benzene; Ionizing radiation Pesticides; Organophosphates ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Solvents; Pesticides; Diesel exhaust; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) Silicones; Solvents; Ionizing radiation; Solvents; Pesticides; chlordane; Organophosphates Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Myelodysplastic syndrome (pre-leukemia) Metals; Petrochemicals; Solvents; Pesticides; glyphosate 37; 89; 133 ammonia; arsenic; Dusts; asbestos; silica; Formica; Electromagnetic fields; Metals; copper; nickel; Steel; tin 90; 91; 92 Myocardial infarction (Heart attack) Cardio-vascular; Geriatrics carbon disulfide; carbon monoxide; cyanide; Dihalomethanes; hydrogen sulfide; methylene chloride; Nitrates/Nitrites; Particulate air pollution (soot); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking) Chromium; Wood dust Chromium arsenic; styrene mercury; nickel; phosphine 48; 144; 148 Nasal polyps Nasal septal perforation Respiratory; Ear, Nose, and Throat Respiratory; Ear, Nose, and Throat arsenic; beryllium; copper; nickel antimony Nasopharyngeal/SinoNasal cancer Ear, Nose, and Throat; Oncology (cancer); Respiratory chromium (VI)+; formaldehyde+; Leather dust; nickel+; Wood dust; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) diisopropyl sulfate; Isopropyl oils; PAHs acetaldehyde^; benzene; Chlorophenols; 1,4-dioxane^; hexamethylphosphoramide; Hydrazines^; Mustard gas; naphthalene^; Nitrosamines; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; dibromochloropropane (DBCP)^; ethylene dibromide (EDB)#; acetochlor; alachlor; 2,4,5-T; propylene oxide; radium; MCPA; Herbicides^ mercury; Solvents; carbon disulfide; carbon tetrachloride; formaldehyde; trichloroethylene (TCE) 25; 81; 89; 98 + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Nephrotic syndrome Neural tube defects/CNS malformations* Renal (kidney); Immunology Birth defects; Neurology; Pediatrics cadmium; gold; lead; Phenols; phosphorus arsenic; Chlorophenols; mercury; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts 52 Cadmium exposure in cigarette smokers is double (see acute tubular necrosis comments). *Includes eye malformations (congenital cataracts), anencephaly, and hydrocephaly. Trihalomethanes are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection, usually with chlorine. Carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene as drinking water contaminants. Maternal pesticide exposure in agricultural workers and in the home have been associated with NTD. Individual pesticide exposure was not identified in these studies. Characterized by symptoms of irritability, fatigability, difficulty in concentrating, loss of interest in daily events. benzene; cadmium; copper; Chlorophenols; hydrogen 57; 89; 110; 132; cyanide; manganese; Pesticides; Agent Orange; 2,4-D; 141; 202 2,4,5-T; benomyl; chlordecone; ethylene thiourea (ETU); Solvents; chloroform; Ethylene glycol ethers; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; vinyl chloride; vinylidene chloride; Tobacco smoke acrylamide; arsenic; lead; manganese; mercury; nHexane; methyl chloride; toluene Neurosthenia (Organic affective syndrome) Olfactory alterations (hyposmia, anosmia, dysomias) Oral cancer Neurology; Psychiatry Solvents Neurology; Ear, Nose, Acids; ammonia; and Throat Hydrocarbons; Metals; antimony; cadmium; nickel; Solvents Respiratory; Oncology Tobacco smoke+; Smokeless ethyl alcohol (ethanol); (cancer); Ear, Nose, tobacco products+ Nitrosamines; NNN; NNK and Throat Ear, Nose, and Throat; Oncology (cancer); Respiratory Pediatrics; Developmental; Birth defects Smokeless tobacco products+; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+ ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Nitrosamines; NNN; NNK ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Tobacco smoke acetaldehyde^; PAHs + - Group 1 human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) NNN and NNK are tobacco specific nitrosamines. + - Group 1 human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) NNN and NNK are tobacco specific nitrosamines. Parental pesticide exposure in the home and occupationally in agricultural workers has been associated with oral clefts. Environmental exposure to alcohol, tobacco smoke or dioxins may interfere with gene expression (TGFA and TGFB3) required for palate and lip formation. Trihalomethanes, including chloroform, are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection (usually by chlorine). Carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene as drinking water contaminants. cadmium - related to calcium and phosphorus wasting and impaired synthesis of Vitamin D. 46 Lead accumulates in bone and increased exposure may result in women during times of increased bone turnover (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, and menopause) 155 Oral cancer acetaldehyde^; PAHs Oral clefts (cleft lip and palate) cadmium; Pesticides; Agent Orange; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; 57; 78; 89 dinoseb; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; 1,2dichloroethane; Ethylene glycol ethers; trichloroethylene (TCE); Dioxins/TCDD; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts Osteomalacia Osteoporosis Osteosclerosis Ovarian atrophy Ovarian cancer Musculo-skeletal Geriatrics; Musculoskeletal Musculo-skeletal Genito-Urinary; Female Reproduction Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary; Female Reproduction cadmium hydrofluoric acid aluminum; cadmium Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); fluoride fluoride 1,3-butadiene Ionizing radiation Aromatic amines; Dyes; asbestos; Diesel exhaust; Solvents; Pesticides; calcium cyanamide; Triazene herbicides; Talc 84; 98; 201 lead Pancreatic cancer Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+ ethylan; Ionizing radiation; nitrophenol; Solvents; PAHs; PCBs; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; DDT/DDE; Fungicides; Herbicides; 1,1-dichloroethane acrylamide; acrylonitrile; cadmium; chlorhydrin; 29; 63; 81; 95; 96; Chromium; ethylene oxide; Nitrosamines; NNK; 121; 131; 164 Pesticides; Fungicides; Herbicides; nitrofen; Organophosphates; parathion; quinclorac; silica; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; formaldehyde; methylene chloride^; styrene; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE); vinyl chloride carbon tetrachloride; cobalt; Diesel exhaust; pentachlorophenol (PCP); trichloroethylene (TCE) aluminum; iron; n-Hexane; PCBs; Pesticides; diquat; glyphosate; rotenone; maneb; mancozeb; Organochlorine pesticides; dieldrin; Organophosphates; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids 61; 80; 89; 158; 202; 203 18 + - Group 1 human carcinogen (IARC) Organic solvent exposure in commercial pressmen and dry cleaners. NNK is a tobacco specific nitrosamines One case-control study found an association between organochlorine levels and K-ras mutations in pancreati Pancreatitis Parkinson's disease/Movement disorders Gastrointestinal; ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Endocrine (Hormones) Neurology; Geriatrics manganese; MPTP dimethylformamide; Ethylene glycols; methanol; Organophosphates carbon disulfide; carbon monoxide; methanol; Pesticides; paraquat Parkinsonism symptoms include tremor, rigidity, gait disturbances, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes. Pesticide exposures as defined by occupational exposure (vineyard worker, agricultural worker, farmer, animal breeder, pesticide applicator) or inferred by rural residences or well water as source of drinking water has been associated with PD. Several population based case-control studies have identified a 3-4 fold increased likelihood of PD with past herbicide or insecticide exposure. Paraquat has a structure similar to MPTP. A possible role of gene-pesticide interactions in the etiology of PD has been postulated with reports of associations between glutathione transferase polymorphisms, NAT-2 slow acetylators, and slow 4hydroxylation of debrisoquine (CYP 2D6 29B+) and PD. These genetic variants may increase risk from environmental exposure by slowing detoxification of exogenous compounds. Peripheral neuropathy Musculo-skeletal; Neurology acrylamide; arsenic; ethylene oxide; Hydrocarbons; nHexane; methyl n-butyl ketone; lead; mercury; Pesticides; Carbamates; aldicarb; Organophosphates* pesticides; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; fenvalerate; thallium carbon disulfide; cyanide; Bdimethylaminopropionitrile (DMAPN); manganese; nitrous oxide; PCBs; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; chlordecone; DDT/DDE; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; Dithiocarbamates; maneb; zineb; methyl bromide; 1,1dichloroethane acridine; Aminobenzoic acid derivatives; benomyl; Chromium; Coal tars; Halogenated salicylanilides; PAHs; Pesticides; Stibene (antimony) Agent Orange; cadmium; carbon monoxide; 51; 89; 98; 144; 202 Elemental mercury and mercury vapor cause peripheral Dioxins/TCDD; manganese; methyl methacrylate; neuropathy, but organic mercury effects are not well understood. phosphine; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; Solvents; benzene; Hexacarbons: n-hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone cause "gluemethylene chloride; styrene; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); sniffer" neuropathy. *Organophosphates cause a delayed trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; xylene; neuropathy occurring 1-3 weeks after exposure. Compounds tellurium; triethyltin associated with this include chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, ethyl 4nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothionate, leptophos, methamidophos, mipafox, omethoate, parathion, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, trichlorofon, and trichlornat. DMAPN - used as a catalyst in the manufacture of polyurethane 11 @ - hexavalent chromium compounds Photosensitivity Dermatology (Skin); Allergy Pleural disease (effusions, Respiratory plaques, thickening) Pneumoconiosis Pneumonia Respiratory Respiratory asbestos; Ceramic fibers; Talc mica attapulgite; barium; Cement; fluoride; PVC; wollastonite Isocyanates; Pesticides; trimellitic anhydride; 1,1dichloroethane 16; 20 15 *Metal alloys found in dental labs containing chromium, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, berryllium, and titanium. 89 Pulmonary infiltrates have been demonstrated in pesticide applicators and after prolonged exposure to pesticides. antimony; asbestos; Ceramic bentonite; iron; Metals*; tin fibers; Talc beryllium; cadmium; manganese; mercury; nickel; nitrogen dioxide; tellurium; vanadium; zinc Pneumonitis (hypersensitivity) Respiratory; Allergy beryllium; Isocyanates; aluminum; arsenic; chlorine; Epoxy resins; Heavy metals; manganese cadmium; Chromium; cobalt; mercury; nickel; zinc; Organic dusts*; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; trimellitic anhydride Teflon; polyvinyl fluoride; polytetrafluoroethylene ethyl alcohol (ethanol); hexachlorobenzene; PAHs; PCBs *Organic dusts are contaminated with bacteria, fungi, amoebae, or animal proteins. Polymer Fume Fever Porphyria (toxic) Respiratory; Immunology Hematology (Blood); Liver Dioxins/TCDD; halothane; lead; methyl chloride; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; Paint fumes; Paint fumes; formaldehyde; Pesticides; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; DDT/DDE; Organophosphates; diazinon; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; vinyl chloride aluminum; Disinfectants; o-benzyl-p-chlorophenol; 2benzyl-4,6-dichlorophenol 47; 89 Self-limited flu-like illness caused by degradation products formed by heating Teflon products to greater than 300 C Hexachlorobenzene exposure in adults results in cutaneous photosensitivity and porphyrinuria. However, in infants, exposure results in high mortality and neurotoxicity (convulsions) without porphyrinuria. Aluminum inhibits some heme synthetic enzymes and has been implicated in causing porphyria in chronic hemodialysis patients, whom are often aluminum overloaded. Lead intoxication causes signs and symptoms similar to acute intermittent porphyria including abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. However, anemia which is often found with lead intoxication is virtually absent in porphyria. 100 Pre-eclampsia (pregnancy- Female Reproduction induced hypertension) Pre-term delivery Developmental; Pediatrics; Reproduction Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary; Male Reproduction Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) chloroform; Solvents Air pollution; carbon monoxide; Particulate air pollution (soot); benzene; DDT/DDE; DES; ethylene oxide; lead Agent Orange; Aromatic amines; Solvents; PAHs; Pesticides; methyl bromide; Organochlorine pesticides carbon disulfide; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Phthalates; di 56; 58; 98; 106; (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)/MEHP 114; 136; 153; 166; 196 acrylonitrile; Androgens; Estrogens/DES; bisphenol A; cadmium; Chlorophenols; Chromium; Diesel exhaust; methylene chloride^; nickel; Pesticides; atrazine; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); dichlorvos; DDT/DDE; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6phenylimidazol(4,5-b)pyridine); trichloroethylene (TCE) 29; 54; 64; 85; 98; # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen 117; 129; 130; 156; (IARC) (IARC), Polymorphisms of genes for enzymes NAT-1, 170; 202 CYP2D6*B, and GSTT1 have been weakly associated with increased risks of prostate ca. Pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, and farmers has been associated with prostate ca. In these studies, the individual was exposed to mixtures of pesticides that are unidentifiable from study designs. 58; 89; 98; 202 Prostate cancer Psychiatric disturbances (disorientation, hallucinations, psychosis, delirium, paranoias, anxiety/depression, emotional laibility, mood changes, euphoria). Neurology; Psychiatry carbon disulfide; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); mercury; lead ethylene oxide; manganese; acrylamide; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordecone; trichloroethylene (TCE); Pesticides; dicofol; dieldrin; telodrin; thallium methyl bromide; DDT/DDE; dichloropropene; Organophosphates; chlorpyrifos Pulmonary disease-anemia Respiratory; syndrome Immunology Pulmonary edema Respiratory trimellitic anhydride hydrogen sulfide; paraquat; diquat; phosgene ammonia; beryllium; ethylene oxide; aluminum; antimony; boron; cadmium; ozone; formaldehyde; hydrofluoric acid; polytetrafluoroethylene; selenium; 1,1-dichloroethane Nitrogen oxides; mercury; methyl bromide; Organophosphates; nickel; phosphine; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); Chloro-Phosphate compounds; Thioureas; zinc Caused by repeated hi-dose exposure to TMA fumes. Coombs positive hemolytic anemia and respiratory failure are evident. Pulmonary fibrosis Raynaud's phenomenon Respiratory Cardio-vascular; Immunology Reduced Fertility - Female Developmental; Anesthetic gases; Ionizing (infertility and subfertility) Female Reproduction; radiation; Tobacco Smoke Genito-Urinary (Active smoking); Estrogens/DES aluminum; asbestos; Coal dust; silica; paraquat; Tobacco smoke Vibration; vinyl chloride beryllium; Chromium; nickel; vinyl chloride arsenic; Nitrates/Nitrites Ethylene glycol ethers; formaldehyde; lead; nitrous oxide; Pesticides; Solvents; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); toluene; Tobacco smoke (Secondhand); 1bromopropane; 2-bromopropane cadmium; methylene chloride; Radar; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); Welding fumes; 1-bromopropane; Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking); Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) cadmium; copper; fluoride; gold; mercury; ozone; phosgene Estrogens/DES; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); trichloroethylene (TCE) Dioxins/TCDD; mercury; Pesticides; Herbicides; hexachlorobenzene; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordecone; DDT/DDE; PCBs; pentachlorophenol (PCP); styrene; vanadium 16 23 42; 68; 98; 112; Women exposed to DDT in the womb have been shown to have 124; 145; 185; 205; reduced fertility (increased time to pregnancy) as adults. 208; 210; 211; 212; 213; 214; 215 Reduced Fertility - Male Developmental; (infertility and subfertility) Genito-Urinary; Male Reproduction carbon disulfide; Estrogens/DES; ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Ethylene glycol ethers; Heat; Ionizing radiation; lead; Pesticides; chlordecone; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); ethylene dibromide (EDB); 1,1-dichloroethane; 2-bromopropane Tobacco Smoke (Active smoking)+ methoxychlor; vinclozolin; dinoseb; bisphenol A; 42; 53; 56; 80; 89; hexachlorobenzene; lindane; benomyl; Chromium; 98; 112; 202; 205; ethylene oxide; manganese; mercury; Solvents; 208; 213; 216; 239 Dinitrotoluenes; epichlorohydrin; toluene diamine; PAHs; benzo(a)pyrene; Pesticides; carbendazim; carbaryl; 2,4D; DDT/DDE Subpopulations of men with genetic polymorphisms in ion channel isoforms may be at a higher risk for sperm damage from heavy metal exposure. Exposure to pesticides in farming or pesticide application have been associated with reduced time to pregnancy. Studies have not identified particular pesticides or pesticide classes. Renal (kidney) cancer Genito-Urinary; Oncology (cancer); Renal (kidney) arsenic+; asbestos; benzene; Coal tars; Particulate air pollution (soot); Coal tars; Asphalt; Creosotes; copper sulfate; PAHs; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Pesticides; captafol#; trichloroethylene (TCE) benzidine; cadmium; Chromium; p-dichlorobenzene^; Gasoline^; lead#; mercury^; Mineral oils; Cutting oils; Lubricating oils; MTBE; Mustard gas; nickel; Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform^; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); Pesticides; Fungicides; captan; Chlorothalonil^; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); glyphosate; nitrapyrin; potassium bromate; tetrafluoroethylene^; vinyl chloride 29; 62; 81; 86; 98; 126; 202 + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC). Organic solvent and degreasing exposure in iron/steel and dry cleaning/laundry workers. Pesticide exposure associated with disease includes insecticide Renal stones Retinoblastoma Rheumatoid arthritis Rhinitis - allergic Renal (kidney); Metabolism Oncology (cancer); Neurology; Pediatrics beryllium; cadmium Pesticides Estrogens/DES; Pesticides; Solvents Phthalates 22; 23; 77; 94 166; 183 Cadmium exposure in cigarette smokers is double (see acute tubular necrosis comments). Up to 30% of berylliosis patients have renal stones. 36 Exposure to pesticides through farming in maternal grandparents was associated with retinoblastoma in one case-control study. Immunology; Musculo- silica Tobacco smoke skeletal Respiratory; Acid anhydrides; amylase; Diesel exhaust Immunology; Allergy Diisocyanates; Guar gum; Latex; Metal salts; platinum; nickel; vanadium; Chromium; cobalt; Organic dusts; trimellitic anhydride; Wood dust Respiratory; Immunology; Ear, Nose, and Throat Air pollution; Diesel exhaust; nitrogen dioxide; ozone; sulfur dioxide; Aldehydes; ammonia; chlorine; phosgene; VOCs Allergens causing allergic rhinitis also can cause sinusitis and occupational asthma. Numerous agents have been associated with rhinitis - a few are included here. Acid anhydrides are found in epoxy resins and paints. Rhinitis - irritant Salivary gland cancer Sarcoidosis Oncology (cancer); Ionizing radiation Ear, Nose, and Throat Respiratory; Immunology silica aluminum; barium; beryllium; cobalt; copper; gold; titanium; zirconium Scleroderma Dermatology (Skin); Immunology silica Solvents; benzene; carbon tetrachloride; Paint thinners/removers; trichloroethane; trichloroethylene (TCE); toluene; xylene; vinyl chloride Estrogens/DES; Epoxy resins; Herbicides; mercury; 9; 23; 77 metaphenylenediamine; naphtha; Silicone/Parafin breast implants; tetrachloroethylene (PCE); n-Hexane Scrotal cancer Dermatology (Skin); Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary Neurology; Developmental Coal tars+; Shale oils+; PAHs carbon monoxide; cyanide; lead; mercury Creosotes# Occupational silica exposure has been associated with the development of scleroderma in males but not females. The scleroderma-like syndrome caused by vinyl chloride has been shown to occur in groups with HLA-DR5, similar to patients with classic idiopathic scleroderma. A case of scleroderma has been reported after exposure to a herbicide containing a combination of bromobutyl methyl uracil, dichlorophenyl dimethylurea, and aminotriazole. + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen (IARC) Seizures aluminum; Halogenated beryllium; boron; hexachlorophene; Organotins; hydrocarbons; Pesticides; methyl Solvents; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids bromide; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; phosphine 58; 60; 89; 98 Silicosis Skeletal malformations* Respiratory Musculo-skeletal; Pediatrics; Birth defects Dermatology (Skin); Oncology (cancer) silica ethyl alcohol (ethanol) arsenic Ethylene glycol ethers; ethylene oxide; manganese; nicotine; Pesticides; atrazine; bromoxynil; chlordecone; molinate; 1,1-dichloroethane acrylamide#; vinyl chloride 58; 68; 89; 202 Silicosis is associate with an increased incidence of mycobacterial and/or fungal infections *Includes limb reduction, syndactyly, and polydactyly. Parental exposure to pesticides have been associated with a 3-4 fold risk of skeletal malformations. + - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen (IARC), Skin cancer caused by chemical exposure can take 2050 years to manifest. Skin cancer (nonmelanoma) arsenic+; Coal tars+; Ionizing radiation+; Mineral oils+; Shale oils+; UV radiation+ Aromatic amines; Creosotes#; ethylene oxide; PAHs; benz(a)anthracene#; benzo(a)pyrene#; dibenz(a,h)anthracene; dimethyl benzanthracene; methylcholanthrene; Pesticides; Arsenical pesticides 11; 98 Skin ulceration Dermatology (Skin) Acids/Alkalis; arsenic; beryllium; calcium arsenate ; calcium nitrate; Chromium; Lime; tin; zinc Dioxins/TCDD+ Chlorophenols^; DDT/DDE^; Phenoxyacetic herbicides^; Agent Orange; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; MCPA; Chlorophenols^ cadmium; Chromium; cobalt^; iron; nickel; Pesticides; amitrole; Fungicides; captafol; hexachlorobenzene^; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; lindane; titanium 25; 26; 36; 84; 89; 98; 123; 187 * Includes rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and other types of soft tissue sarcoma. '+ - Group 1 human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Limited data have associated pesticide use with increased risk of STS in children. Soft tissue sarcoma * Oncology (cancer); Pediatrics Spasticity/Myoclonus Musculo-skeletal; Neurology mercury Steatosis (fatty liver) Liver; Gastrointestinal ethyl alcohol (ethanol); Solvents; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; dimethylformamide; tetrachloroethane; trichloroethane; phosphorus Gastrointestinal; Oncology (cancer) aluminum; carbon monoxide; bismuth hexane; Pesticides; methyl bromide; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; 1,1dichloroethane arsenic; halothane; Hydrazines; Hydrocarbons; styrene; TNT (Trinitrotoluene) 60; 98 6; 47 Arsenical pesticides have been associated with steatosis. Hydrocarbon exposure in petrochemical workers has been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Stomach cancer asbestos; Aromatic amines; Chromium; Coal dust; Dioxins/TCDD; ethylene oxide; Ionizing radiation; nickel; Nitrates/Nitrites; Solvents; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; Trihalomethanes; Chlorination byproducts acrylonitrile; 1,3-butadiene; lead#; PAHs; Pesticides; amitrole; Chlorothalonil; dibromochloropropane (DBCP)^; dichlorvos; dichloropropene; ethylene dibromide (EDB)#; propylene oxide; Solvents; toluene; xylene 81; 98; 123; 198 # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, farmers and other occupations with diverse exposures to mixtures of pesticides has been associated with stomach ca. In these studies it was not possible to associate the cancer with individual pesticide exposure. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Testicular atrophy Pediatrics; Respiratory Tobacco smoke (Secondhand) Immunology silica Endocrine (Hormones); GenitoUrinary; Male Reproduction Estrogens/DES; ethyl alcohol (ethanol) 147 Estrogens/DES Aromatic amines; DES; Hair dyes; Silicones; Tobacco smoke; trichloroethylene (TCE); UV radiation acrylamide; boron; 1,3-butadiene; Glycol ethers; 2methoxyethanol; 2-ethoxyethanol; Pesticides; carbendazim; chlordecone; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); dinoseb; ethylene dibromide (EDB); terrazole; Phthalates; benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP); dibutyl phthalate (DBP); di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)/MEHP; triphenyltin; benomyl acrylamide; cadmium; Chlorophenols; dimethylformamide^; Electromagnetic fields; Ethylene glycol ethers; MTBE; Pesticides; dibromochloropropane (DBCP); Fungicides; hexachlorobenzene; hexaconazole; iprodione; Herbicides; 2,4-D; linuron; MCPA; pronamide; methyl bromide; Organochlorine pesticides; chlordane; methoxychlor; Organophosphates; PCBs; trichloroethylene (TCE); zinc 9; 22; 23; 77; 94 76; 98; 165 Testicular cancer Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary; Male Reproduction Estrogens/DES+; Pesticides; chlordimeform/4-COT* 29; 36; 68; 85; 87; 89; 98; 117; 126; 164 ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC), *4-COT is the metabolite of chlordimeform. Pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, farmers and other occupations with diverse exposures to mixtures of pesticides has been associated with testicular ca. In these studies, it was not possible to correlate an individual pesticide exposure with disease. Parental exposure to pesticides has also been associated with testicular ca. in male offspring. Thrombocytopenia Hematology (Blood); Immunology benzene gold; vinyl chloride Thrombocytopenic purpura Hematology (Blood); Pediatrics Thyroid cancer Oncology (cancer); Ionizing radiation Metabolism; Endocrine (Hormones) ethylene thiourea (ETU)^ Pesticides; dichlorvos; DDT/DDE; dieldrin; Pyrethins/Pyrethroids; lindane; polyurethane; toluene diisocyanate; turpentine Pesticides; lindane; permethrin; polyurethane; pentachlorophenol (PCP); tributyl tin oxide; Solvents; turpentine acrylamide#; Chlorophenols; Nitrosamines; 84; 89; 98 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Pesticides; amitrole; Fungicides; fenbuconazole; maneb; mancozeb; triadimefon; tycor; zineb; Herbicides; clofentezine; hexachlorobenzene^; pendimethalin; Phenoxyacetic herbicides; prodiamine; pronamide; thiazopyr; treflan; trifluralin; Dioxins/TCDD carbon disulfide; fluoride; lead; mercury; Pesticides; Carbamates; Fungicides; hexachlorobenzene; maneb; zineb; Organochlorine pesticides; Organophosphates; pentachlorophenol (PCP); Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) 80; 93; 101; 137; 143 22 99 # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Pesticide exposure in agricultural areas and in farmers with diverse exposures to mixtures of pesticides has been associated with thyroid cancer. In these studies, it was not possible to correlate an individual pesticide exposure with disease. Thyroid disorders Hypothyroidism Metabolism; cobalt; Ionizing radiation; Endocrine (Hormones) PBBs; PCBs; Radioactive iodine (I131); Phenols; thiocyanate Immunology Dioxins/TCDD; ethylene thiourea (ETU); perchlorate; 1,1dichloroethane Oleyl-anilide Toxic oil syndrome 9 Epidemic in Madrid, 1981, caused by rapeseed (canola) oil denatured with 2% aniline and sold illegally for food use. 2.3% mortality rate with symptoms resembling a connective tissue disease including vasculitis, scleroderma-like skin disease, eosinophilia, high IgE and low levels of autoantibodies. HLA DR3DR4 were associated with chronic disease. Etiology and syndrome are very similar to eosinophilic-myalgia syndrome. Trigeminal neuropathy Neurology Undifferentiated Immunology Connective Tissue Disease Uterine cancer Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary; Female Reproduction Female Reproduction; Genito-Urinary; Reproduction Estrogens/DES+/DES+; 1,1dichloroethane dichloroacetylene; trichloroethylene (TCE) Solvents 10; 77 acrylamide; arsenic; ethylene oxide; Pesticides; captafol; 30; 131; 164; 168 daminozide (Alar); DDT/DDE; dieldrin; Progestins^ DES Solvents exposure from paint thinners or removers and the use of mineral spirits have been associated with UCTD. Uterine fibroids Vaginal cancer Oncology (cancer); Genito-Urinary; Female Reproduction Cardio-vascular; Immunology Renal (kidney); Oncology (cancer); Pediatrics DES+ Vasculitis silica Solvents; Pesticides; Welding fumes 77; 97 Wilm's Tumor Aromatic amines; lead; Pesticides 35; 36 Includes primary systemic vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome. 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