# 1026882-Nota-Padat-Fizik-F5-Waves - 6.1 What is waves WAVES...

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6.1 WAVES What is waves? Process of transferring energy from one location to another which is produced by an oscillating or vibrating motion. Examples of waves Light waves are produced as a result of vibrations of electrons in an atom Sound waves are produced by vibrating mechanical bodies such as a guitar strings or a tuning fork. Water waves are produced by a disturbance on a still water surface. How do waves transfer energy? When energy is transferred by a wave from a vibrating source to a distant receiver, there is no transfer of matter between the two points. When the string is shaken up and down, a disturbance moves along the length of the string. It is the disturbance that moves along the length of the string, not parts of the string itself. The energy transferred from a vibrating source to a receiver is carried by a disturbance in a medium, not by matter moving from one place to another within the medium Drop a stone in a quite pond. It will produce a wave that moves out from the center in expanding circles. It is the disturbance that moves, not the water. After the disturbance passes, the water is where it was before the wave was produced . The string and water is the medium through which wave energy travels. What is Transverse Wave? A transverse wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is at right angle to the direction of propagation of the wave. 1

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The spring is moved sideways. The motion of the particles medium (spring) is at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels. Examples: water waves, light waves What is Longitudin al Waves? A longitudinal wave is a wave which the vibration of particles in the medium is along (parallel to) the direction of propagation of the wave. The slinky spring moves backwards and forwards to produce a transverse wave. The particles of the medium (spring) move along the direction of the wave. The wave that travels along the spring consists of a series of compression and rarefaction . Examples: sounds waves. 2
The phenomenon of water waves can be investigated using a ripple tank. The water waves are produced by a vibrating bar on the water surface. The tank is leveled so that the depth of water in the tank is uniform to ensure water waves propagate with uniform speed. The water acts as a lens to produce a pattern of bright and dark regions on a piece of white paper placed under the tank when light passes through it. Water waves have crests and troughs. A crest is the highest position of the wave acts as a convex lens, whereas a trough is the lowest position acts as a concave lens. Light rays from the lamp on top will focus onto the white screen below. The bright lines correspond to the crests, and the dark lines correspond to the troughs. 3

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1026882-Nota-Padat-Fizik-F5-Waves - 6.1 What is waves WAVES...

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