map making ch 5 - WAWWM,WM,MWH . IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO...

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Unformatted text preview: WAWWM,WM,MWH . IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO RAISE A CHILD Ages Nine Through Ten CHILDREN IN THE RAIN FOREST Hillary Clinton’s recent book has popularized a saying that my colleagues and l have long been using to describe the relationship between the school and the community: it takes a Village to raise a child. it’s not just the school’s job to educate children; it’s the responsibility of the whole com- munity. Schools will do the best job when they are community centers. This means that the community is in the school through frequent parent nights, volunteer programs, guest speakers, and DARE programs. And it means that the school is often out in the community through frequent field trips, apprenticeship programs, school~business partnerships, and com- munity service projects. This village notion most commonly refers to the interconnected web of social responsibilities and relationships of a healthy community, but 1 want to give it a geographical spin as wellr For the geography, social stud— ies, and environmental education curricula to be healthy in the intermedi— ate grades, projects should move out of the neighborhood and into the broader community, town, and watershed. The maps of children ages nine and ten cover a much wider terrain than the maps of their younger coun— terparts. One of the causes of this expansion is bicycles. Children now have both the desire to explore and the necessary safety skills. This combi— nation convinces parents that it‘s all right to let children bicycle by them- selves to the town beach, across town to school, or down to the shopping center. The curriculum should travel along with the children. 1 Visited the unusual village of Monteverde last year. it’s a Quaker community located high in the Tilaran mountains of Costa Rica, just un- derneath the cloud forests of the continental divide. The Quakers started a cheese factory here in the 19505, which helped to sustain the dairy in— dustry and breathe new commercial life into the local villages of Santa Elena and Monteverde. The community realized that the health of the dairy industry depended on the protection of the cloud forests, so they created a private reserve. There are now four reserves protecting almost 65 ., . . y,M..WWMMMWmewmammmmwwm It Takesa Village ‘ 67 Id there was to Raise a Chi om the school, i found out that » MAPMAKINC WITH CHILDREN 1?: I131::1dred thousand acres, including the Childr ’ ' purchased through the fundraising effoi:solga1£.ForeS[’ Wthh brought children and teachers fr C lldren an Over a similar tree down near the market in town. The next day, guided by the ten-year—old daughter of some friends, we e known by children in the area. On the world. As a resul ' [ions in central Amethigloarlitzverde is one of the premier tourist d ' [011mm devalopmem for threi 151 Viewed as a model of sustainableesuna- prOVide a Strong economic f region. Agriculture and low-impact to e'CO- and the emmonmem in [h' oundation for the preservation of local ulrlsm Its not surprisin h 15 Belated area, cu lure g t at an unusual elementary school has emerg d ‘ e in this context Th , . - 6 mission statem en states that the school is; t for the Centro de Educacion Creative, Committed [ . [ion as [he f0::§ademlc excellence with environmental d SChOOH is to em :tlon ?f the entire CurriCulum. [The goal6 fule- Sponsible bilingugyegegtifre gerlilerations of environmentally tfee ’ P 6 Wit [h k- ‘ create Chan 6 . e 5 1115 and moti ' g , preserve their natural environment anhatf'on to we in peaceful CO-eXiS[ . world ence With all the people and creatures of the This school is cle my one of the fi ronmental ’ r5“ SChOOlS in the h ‘ fiphery education at the heart of the CUTfiCulumelifiiflflie to pm emu; ‘ an at the e- In Preparation f p 01” a workSh ‘ other educate ' OP With teachers t ’ school to find :nm the area, i went for an early rnorrailinthis SChOOI and for the workshopappropriate destination for a short field;tsrlmlllhleafr the g Was on the diff 1? e OCus and cream 6 ~ . erence between fo t ‘ ' dren when 5116;): hf: la‘ My Opinion is that eCOPhObiSa eerrlrri:by eCO-hteraq ecological prObIerhs 1lgicaltors, and parents put too early an ergeshm ~Chll- est and protectm er‘ldy aying the responsibility for savin [3p alStis on alienate rather thg angered species on seven- and ei mg 6 ram for- need to learn the in connect children with the naturalgw VIEW-0145’ we can save it SO OIeauty and intricacies of the natural world b. Ehfldren would intrigue,a d m} mornlng walk I was lookin f e ore they a k n engage children. N f g or a Place that J c pOL OK at from the school I hit the The seeds of stra , . “816? fi tre - other mm fore g as establish themselv ' nutrients. Wh :1: 23:?“an then send roots earthward 1:55;:rtclgeoianopy of e roots an $01 and and Slowly create a counter each other h Woven latticework ’ t 63’ grow tOgether roots radu 1 , around the h r . mam The81h::ttrangles the onginal tree by deprivifisgtittre? This lamce Of [act bur: With a corrreeldies and eventually rots, leaving theostwater and Flu— fig that was slightl dieter hollow core. That morning I fourrigcllngler fig m- on the inside to a heilélFtEdf 0:811 completely hollow. and easilvacftrasglifr fulfillment of an O 8 out fifty feet. Bein ‘ I ‘ r 1 1m a E . g inSide » own children thrill? ills? Famlly Robinson fantasies Wh: ulpbhigh was a ’ t 85" 1mm€diatelY started to Dlav lmr film Might my I" i ham \KFLAM r set off to a secret vine-swinging plac the way, we met our guides twelve-year-old brother and a friend who showed us two other cl‘mbable strangler figs. One of these was more Straight up; the other was darker and more mysterious inside. From talk- ing with the chicken, 1 realized that their culture in the area harbored a special knowledge of the location and climbability of many of these trees, as well as a knowledge of good swimming holes, great vines to swing on, and other adventurous places. lf 1 were a fifth-grade teacher at the Centro de Educacién Creativa, this is the project 1 would do. Lots of environmentally conscious families visit Monteverde. The normal activity is a hike through the cloud forest looking for birds and hearing lectures about the intricacies of tropical ecology We did this and it was great, but how about some activities de- signed specifically for kids? Perhaps the fifth graders could create a map and guide to the safe tree-climbing and vine-swinging places in the Mon- teverde community They’d have to collect data by interviewing children and adults who grew up in Monteverde, visit the sites to determine their suitability, create a map showing the location of all the sites, write an ap- propriate guide, and design app blicity. Then the fifth graders ropriate pu could be hired as guides by one of the local guide organizations, who would provide transportation and adult su fth graders could pervision, Fi have a source of income, part of the fee could be donated to the school, and visiting children would enjoy true interactive, bond ing activities with the rain forest. There’s nothing like being inside a tree to make you feel like a part of nature. This project may never happen, with your nine- and ten—year-olds might not principles should be the same. Children this age want to explore, put things in order, and have real responsibilities. They want to find out what’s around the next bend and make sure that their maps are accurate. This chapter contains descriptions of two very different kinds of projects—- exploratory projects tha t focus on mapping adventures and technical pro- jects that describe very or making accurate maps of small areas. and the mapping activities you do be this glamorous. But the specific techniques f THE EXPLORERS’ CLUB M...— turally emerge out of a school yard mapping project or oject, but you’ll have to be willing and able to take he core idea is to simulate the experience of living the fifteenth century. The continent is well ex- t there. in the great beyond, is an unmapped This activity can na a neighborhood maps pr lots of short field trips. T in Europe at the end of «Ami/9A m’irl manned. but on W - - v WWW;W(/,W_,M_, , AAPMAKING MITH CHILDREN world with vast resources and surprises. What’s out there, and can we map it and claim it as our own? Many social studies curricula call for studying the explorers in fifth grade, and this kind of project is a down—home intro— duction to that kind of unit. This project can be done either by small groups or as a whole—class activity. If you’re focusing on children’s neighborhood maps, then they’ll have to work individually or in small groups. To explore around the school, you can work as one large team. My focus here will be on projects for the whole elementary classroom. In the beginning, have children discuss what they know about the known world of the school and the surrounding neighborhood. Create a freehand map on the board of the school grounds and ask the children to draw what lies beyond. This initial mapping project is intended to elicit questions about areas near the school that the children don’t know about With teachers at a public school in Schenectady, New York, we focused on the area named Back Secret, a big patch of city land that abutted the school but that the teachers had very little sense of. Once you’ve got a completed sketch map of the known world (of your Europe), then you’re going to empower the children to go forth and explore the unknown world. A good piece of literature that parallels this process is Secret Water by Arthur Ransome (1984). A father drops his five children off with camping equipment and a sketchy map in the midst of a large British estuary Their task is to map all of the islands and channels in the estuary by the time he returns to pick them up in five days. To do this as a class activity, you’ll need three different forms of pre pared outline maps. First, you’ll need a large wall map that shows the school and the known world and sketchy outlines of the unknown world to explore. You need enough definition to create boundaries, but not too much definition so as to take the thrill out of the discovery The bigger the wall map the better. Four square feet is good, and if you have the space and a way to provide access, five or six square feet is not too big. To create this map you’ll need to find a small~scale map of the local area or you’ll have to sketch a map of the school and its surroundings. Using an over— head projector or an opaque projector, project the map image on a large piece of paper and trace the school yard and the areas you want to explore onto the basemap. Identify six or seven areas around the school that you want to explore, delineate these with colored markers, and label them. Each small group of children will be working on mapping just one of these sections. Second, you’ll need 81/2~by—ll-inch versions of the same prepared outline map for the children to use (see Figure 5—1). They will use these maps to collect data in the field Third, for the final stage, it makes sense to provide each small group with an enlarged outline map of just the section they are working on. This piece of the map should be just as large as the final wall map. This actual- sized section allows the students to do a rough draft of their map section. Recruit as many parents and school volunteers as you can, and head out for your expeditions. I recommend two to four expeditions, spaced a few days to a week apart. initially, the challenge for each group will be to create sketch maps of their areas. Make this process easier by providing children with an inventory of things they should look for. in a suburban neighborhood, the inventory might be: Man~Made Structures Natural Features Roads Prominent trees Bridges Hills Houses (especially of people Streams and ponds you know) Rocks and cliffs Public buildings (fire station, Fields churches) Hedges Stores Flowers Graveyards Good hiding places It Takes a Village | 69 to Raise a Child FIGURE 54 A prepared outline map for exploring and map- ping Back Secret, an urban woodland in Schnectady, New York. A large prepared outline map was used on the wall and individual prepared outline maps were used by students for collecting field data. APMAKING lTH CHILDREN After each group has returned from the first exploration, have them use their sketch maps to start to create maps of their findings in their own area. This is where you need the actual~sized copy of the piece of the wall map that they are going to complete. This intermediary map al- lows students to plan and revise their section before their results finally go onto the wall. A second or third expedition will serve to flesh out the details of the areas the children are exploring. It may be important for you to meet with each group to help them frame their goals for each exw pedition or to charge them with things to find out. The third and fourth expeditions can serve as a chance to collect materials from their areas that the children can use to represent some of the places on the map. For example, children may want to represent a sandbank by gluing sand to the map, or a pine forest by selectively cutting some club mosses (princess pines) and attaching them to the map in the right lo~ cation. After the final expedition, the teacher should approve the rough draft of the map for each group’s section. Once this is done, children can then begin work on the wall map. Encourage children to figure out ways to make their section of the map integrate smoothly with adjacent sections. Complete this project by having children identify all of the things they learned about the school neighborhood as a result of the proiect. STREAM EXPLORATlONS By the time children have reached fourth and fifth grade, an understanding of the local watershed becomes appropriate. On their maps, children this age show an increased inclination toward connectedness and networks; they correctly show road relationships and brooks flowing into streams flowing into rivers. just this morning my fourth—grade daughter wanted to know if Harrisville Pond and Silver Lake, two of our favorite swimming destinations in town, were connected. She is trying to figure out how it all fits together. Consequently, now is the time to get children out following and mapping streams. Regrettably, this genuine acrivity is often transmuted into learning the water cycle. Starting as early as second grade, children do little experi~ merits in jars and soon thereafter draw those diagrams of clouds, conden~ sation, rivers flowing to the ocean, and evaporation back to the clouds. The denatured words have little connection to the real world. Rarely do children step outside, investigate puddles, collect rainwater, make minia- ture landscapes, or follow streams. instead, they draw the same diagram, ad nauseam. throughout the elementary years. The water cycle isn’t something to be taught in two weeks; it’s appropri— ately done over the six or eight years of elementary and middle school. The watercourses of the landscape are ‘ and we can only learn them by following them, literally and metaphorically. Just as it is valuable to have ch'ldren trace their own bodies and then map out the circulatory system or the digestive system or the skeleton, it is equally valuable to present children with an outline map of the town or the local region and have them map out the water drainage system. Just as chil- books to discover their inner biology, it is appro— dren work from reference priate to have children use small—scale, detailed area maps to extract information about the watershed. These kinds of studies are grounded and enhanced through stream following and mapping experiences. David Millstone, an elementary social studies teacher in Norwich, Vermont, recognized the allure of stream fol— lowing and the potential curricular value, so he decided to try something unusual. He initiated a class expedition to follow a stream, not knowmg where the stream would lead them. In a student—produced newspaper about this expedition, one child wrote: The Deep Dark Dungeon ” I thought to myself. We were walking “1 can’t see five feet, ' llowing this stream that runs behind the through a giant culvert fo school and through the Nature Area. “Watch out, dripping water,” Mr. Millstone warned us. I finally realized what is beyond the steel grates that you see along the street. I looked up it and saw the grate twenty feet above me. The culvert seemed to be moving. 1 think we took a turn somewhere. “The end,” someone shouted. . . . i had to walk with my feet widely apart. We got out alive, had snack and continued on our adventure . Millstone, in an introduction to the newslette wnstream for many reasons. 1 was curious about the stream myself, and found in conversations with others that no one really seemed to know where the stream went. The trip expanded our recent emphasis on mapping lilorxvich neighborhoods. The search would challenge the classs map~ making skills; similarly, an adventure into the unknown would stimulate children’s writing. . . . The experience of followmg a stream would reinforce a fundamental concept in topographic ows downhill. The stream flows directly under the maps——water fl . he area which we will be surveying for our own new playground, t r ‘ contour map. I wanted children to experience the thrill of posmg a question and working direcrly to find the answer. And not least of all, T thought this trip would be fun. We went for the Great Hike Do r, describes his motives: ItTakesa Village ‘ 71 to Raise a Child WMNMW lPMAKING TH CHILDREN 2 am explo- iur girls after like Down- )avid Mill— 5 in Norwich, Like any true adventure, what started out as a simple idea grew more complex as we trudged along. We ended up doing things that i had not anticipated, and going where i had not planmd to go- There was valuable learnin for b ' - th h adults in dealing with the unexpected. g 0 C lldren and :ach child in the class was responsible for drawing an individual 0 group map of the journey {see Figure 55—23. These maps show a fine 5 r thesis of exploratory enthusiasm and cartographic skill. They ortra )fff- children‘s excitement at walking through the long culvert undelr3 the illitere state'highway, negotiating their way down a tricky waterfall and actualln figuring out where the stream led. From a cartographic pers ective it iy ev1dent that the children were challenged to put the maps in Scale to or: ent them appropriately, to use symbols, to start to try to represent to o phy, and to show the relative location of other main landmarks p gm- Teachers commonly use reflective writing as a way of preservin new experiences, but maps are underutilized in this way Maps in fact Ere of— ten much better vehicles for representing the experience of rnovin through the landscape—especially as documents of exploration Kee it? mind the notion of graphicacy—the skill of communicating relationshi that cannot be successfully communicated by words or mathematical not}: t. . . . , ion alone. The interpretive map is more effective than words in capturin a streamSide expedition. g ~K ~ :7 '7 («J-O] “inland; “an i M Fem WHERE DOES THE 2) “:55 WSW“, M _ STREAM 60????“ '°‘ Mg u my" .nm‘ USlNG GRID FRAMES FOR NATURAL HISTORY STUDIES Focused studies of local flora and fauna are enlivened by using grid frames to make detailed maps of small areas. The mapping techniques are the same as described in the previous chapter, but the questions examined are different. As a graduate student, one of the most compelling field ecology courses I ever took was a course on marine ecology The main project for this course was to map two tide pools, one that was high in the intertidal zone and one that was low and was only exposed for two hours each tidal cycle. Both tide pools were small, ten to fifteen square feet, but the process of mapping them was fascinating. The mapping process served as a kind of magnifying glass, making us look closer and closer at our Irish moss, peri— winkles, and dog whelks. The more we looked, the more we saw. It wasn’t until the fourth day that we discovered whelk egg cases and sea cucum- bers. They had been there all along, but we hadn’t learned to see them. And as we understood the life in our tide pools, we started to gain an ap- preciation of the ecology of intertidal life all along the Maine coast. The cartographer in Howard Norman’s novel The Northern Lights (1988) says, “The more exactly 1 map a place, the more overwhelming what’s around it seems.” i felt similarly overwhelmed with the beauty and intricacies of coastal ecology once my tide pool maps were complete. The microcosm served as a doorway into the macrocosm. 1 adapted this technique when l taught an alpine ecology field course on the flank of Mount Adams in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. i chose a highly wind—exposed ridge and had students map patches of alpine vegetation in the protected lee of large rocks. in the beginning, all of the tiny leafed alpine plants looked the same, but as the mapping pro- ceeded, each plant gained a name and a story Soon the students saw that a difference in location of just two feet meant the difference between life and death for some plants. And once they understood the wind as the shaper of life in their miniature forests, they started to look around them and see the broad patterns of alpine ecology on the mountainsides all around them, The small world became the big world. it’s unlikely you’ll have the opportunity to map tide pools or mountain ridges with your students, but you can use the same principles to design suitable projects for your students. Choose small areas that can fit within the grid frames you’re going to use. Try to find places that have large differences in a small area. And match your choice of mapping project to the big ideas in your curriculum. Here are short descriptions of a variety of projects. Mapping the School Lawn The many feet that tread the school walkways and playgrounds act similar to the wind in alpine areas. \Nhen those feet aren’t walking on pavement, they’re changing the ecology of the plants and soil underfoot. To illustrate .WWWWNWWWWwwwaamwwmemw It Takes a Village A to Raise a Child 73 4PMAKING 1TH CHILDREN how people shape the envir onrnent th ‘ ‘ drengnapi chosen areas of the playgrouf'ljdlgh the” behawon have [he Chfl- ivi e your children into grou . ps. Have some of th Erie: thjtfgr: untrammeled, and have others map ar§a§r::p:h:n:%lawrf digidyd iamoc tit: 1::Eways. irovide the children with data sheets thieage ’ p e nurn er of squares a h ‘ ldt . stegridfram.B Shen 1ray the squares. Also prov1de the children with a list of the he? sure to ou locate on their maps, such as e [ mgs they Stones Dirt patches Twigs Anthills Pieces of paper Grass plants Weed plants Depending on ' your interest in plant id ’ ' entification ‘ want [0 ’ Du m1 your are:l;:§i€ thfrlee to five of the most common lawn weeds fillhdlso i acmfiy most 1:1 them to your students before conducting the ma inn and p .e y you ll have dandelions, plantains clover bpp g ot er easily identifiable plants ’ ’ cm grass, Have the c ‘ ’ Square to [he nillldr?dPTOC66Cl sequentially from one section of the rid information xt, a ing the information to their data sheets From %h‘ examine the, Iiraeate lfargle ((ipfrfeferably 1:1) maps of the different areas The: pso t e i erent areas and . g t to rn ‘ encesi Some questions you might ask are ry aka sense Of the dlffep What was the avera . ge number of plants in ea gghgch area were the plants farther apart? Ch square? In eaCh area? Whih ::::Sh§ddmore dirt patches, stones, and other objects? a more weeds and which ’ Wh. areas had more r ? Wh:ha}:€la:ots are :bl; to grow where theres lots of foot traffic: me o t ’ ' . lawn? e ways in which foot traffic changes an area of If we could protect a ‘ worn area from eo le w lk‘ ’ period, how do you think it would chalhgeg a mg on It for a long Mowed and unmowed lawns You can also co ‘ nduct this activit ' comparin mo d of the SChOOI y g we and unmowed are mg map in yarld. The unmowed area will present a much more challenas vegetatiop1 g ias1 to hthe1 students because of the height of the unmowegd g i s a so at er to represen I t tall lant ii the com at v g V p p s on at a er. How * enfimmplegfoln prpVides a v1v1d Illustration of how technglopgy sha e3?) insects b1mg;1 wr lfpe apparent to your students that there are manly: mor: eaq eséedan} iEes, oyyers, amphibians, and reptiles in the unmowed ar -, a you c oose mowed an r f m eaCh OthEr- d unmowed areas that are adjacent Mapping Insects in Wooded Areas well suited to mapping the presence of insect life on the forest floor. You should do a bit of. prior investigating to determine promis~ ing areas before assigning this task to your students. it will also be impor~ tant for your class to spend timew—before or during this projectw—learning how to identify major classes of forest soil bugs. Golden Guides are suitable resources that can supplem t guides for chil» ent more sophisticated insec dren. Have the children place the frame 0 f forest floor and n a section 0 gradually peel back, leaf by leaf or bit by bit, the material covering the soils id be that of an archeological dig, gradually excavating The style here shou the top levels of duff in order to find the hidden insect life below. Grid frames are Mapping Anthills The small~world experience c ted by having children map anthills. Find a sandy area without much vegetation and a number of ac— corners using stones or bricks so it tive anthills. Support the grid on the doesn’t interfere with the ant activity First have the children map the fea— tures of the area-the anthills, damp and/or dry places, weeds, cracks in the ground, and sticks. Once they have created a map of the area, give them observational tasks on other days Ask, u observe routes that the ants c an be accentua Can yo onsistently follow and show them on your maps? Do the shapes of the anthills and the change from day to day? What happens if you pus rebuild it in the same place? What happens after it rains? There’s a general principle to extract from base map of an area that changes will facilitate observation of and long-term commitment to the flora and fauna of an area Mapping an area is often like staking a claim, The mapping energy expended by the children serves to get them invested in what happens here in the future. The anthills of. today can become the conservation areas of tomorrow. entry locations stay the same or h one of the anthills to the side? Do the ants this activity as well. Having a Mapping a Puddle Puddle tracing ' puddle can be an easy introduction to the idea of contour map» ping, or it can simply be another two—dimensional challenger if you’re do» ing this as a two-dimensional challenge, it's often a good first step beyond nless there are islands in the puddle, the drawing enlargement activity U the whole challenge is just to accurately map the shoreline of the puddlew one squiggly continuous line. By adding stones or bucketfuls of sand to the puddle you can manufacture islands and add more dimension and small—world quality to this little water world. ‘ it Takes a Village if m Raise a Chlfd ‘75 MAPMAKING WITH CHILDREN Unless you can find some unusually small puddles, you may have to use more than one grid frame per puddle or have the children move the grid frame. If you use more than one frame, remember to overlap the frames where they abut so you don’t wind up with a double'wide edge at the contact point. Depth profiling There are two ways to create a depth profile map of a puddle. The simple but time—consuming way is to wait for the puddle to dry up. Map the pud— dle soon after a rain storm when it is at its fullest. Transfer the outline of the puddle to your paper using the same techniques as described in the previous chapter. Now, to begin the process of depth mapping, trace around the perimeter of the puddle with a piece of chalk or a stick to record the initial shoreline. Wait a number of hours or until the next day and map the puddle again. if it hasn’t rained and water has evaporated, there will be a new shoreline at a lower elevation. Trace around the new shoreline with chalk and map its location. Since the surface of water is always flat, you’ll now have a line that is vertically equidistant from your first line. Continue with this sequence of steps as frequently as possible When the puddle is dried up, you’ll have a depth contour map of the puddle drawn on the ground and a contour map on paper. The contour intervals won’t necessarily be the same distance apart, but the idea of intervals will be visually apparent, The second method, creating a depth profile of your puddle without waiting for it to dry up, is a bit more work but is very illustrative. Make sure, however, that you’ve got puddles with both deep and shallow sec— tions or this activity will be boring. I have always been fascinated by fish— ing maps that show the bottom profile of lakes and the places to fish for different kinds of fish, This mapping procedure simulates the way these bottom profiles used to be made. In fact, showing children fishing maps will make this process more relevant. Because you need to measure the depth of the puddle at a lot of different points, you may want to add an ad— ditional set of strings in both directions to the frame, breaking each square into four smaller squares, First, map the edge of the puddle as instructed in the previous method. Now, measure the depth of the puddle at each point where strings cross on your grid frame, and record this depth on the corresponding place on a data sheet like the one shown in Figure 5~3i if you’re doing this in metric measurement, round off to the nearest centimeter. If you’re doing this in English measurement, round off to the nearest half inch Now comes the fun part. The challenge is to create the contour inter— vals by connecting the dots. Choose a contour interval of one inch or two centimeters (see Figure 5—3). Let’s say your greatest depth is four—and—a—half inches, If you’re drawing one—inch depth contours, then your greatest depth contour will be four inches. Using a pencil, since mistakes are unavoidable, connect together all ltTakesa Village ‘ 77 into an enclosed circular form. if you’ve got a to Raise a Child f r indies — ~ —h lf' ches, Of thlcl dflfhkrl:eo:in(d\—la'half inches next to a del3th Of {mixiiflae blfween dept O ‘ ' l f four inches must g0 ‘ t r mtewa O ‘ ht next to You kngw -t1helcoirf1 (hive gOt a depth of four—and'a—halffiniléeioiiimh and them. film; 82;); arid a—half indies, you know thathgm lifter You’ve com— de t O — — en t em. fhreiinch contour intervals have to go betwe This Shoum completely pleted the lOUI—lncli llltet Val (l0 [ha tlltée-lnCh one, ) ‘ g 613:1ng {on}: IIlC11 ultex Val, and so on Ullless 7Ou '6 Oi Inuulple deep FIGURE 5e3 Outline map of puddle showing depth measure— ments and contour Imes drawn from depth mea— surements. _ \v W W» ,vxu/wimMMvWWM/WMWWWWMMWWW§ wWWWW,,,Mi_r—m ,, , 4PMAKING (TH CHILDREN spots in your puddle, you should wind up with concentric rings that en— close each other. Make sure you do a sample lesson with the children on the board to explain this process of interpolation. It’s initially difficult for students to understand the assumption that if you’ve got a four-and—a-half—inch in— terval here and a three—inch interval here, there must be a four—inch in— terval between them. But once they get the idea, the process of locating the intervals is very satisfying. Once these maps are complete, you can hav}e1 the children pretend the puddle is a lake and consider questions suc as Where would be the best place to have a beach for young children? Where would be the best place to fish for deep-water trout? Where do you think lily pads would grow? if you had a house on this lake, where would you want to locate it? Where should you put buoys to warn boats to stay clear? Where would be a good place to locate a rope swing from a tree grow— ing on the shore? (it wants to be at a place where the water is deep right next to the shore.) Personally, I enjoy the movement back and forth from academically challenging tasks to imaginative tasks. The play element helps to keep children engaged and also simulates the real—life environmental planning activities they will be drawn into as adults. And the process of going from a large real place to a small map back to an imaginary place builds bridges between children’s left hemispheric cognitive structures and their right hemispheric artistic, imaginative capacities. Thoreau said that we must see castles in the air and build foundations underneath them. One is not com— plete without the other. THE BASELINE AND OFFSET METHOD: ACCURATE CLASSROOM MAPPlNG When I ask children of different ages to draw neighborhood maps, 1 am of— ten struck by fourth graders’ desire to use rulers. It’s as if nine—year-olds have arrived at an inner understanding of the importance of measurement and straight lines. Waldorf educators talk about the nine-year~old transi— tion, which heralds a major shift from the more aesthetic focus of the cur— riculum in the primary grades to a somewhat more cognitive focus in the intermediate grades. From a developmental perspective, therefore, it makes sense to introduce the baseline and offset method of mapmaking around fourth grade. This technique is one of the core tools of making accurate maps, and it can be modified to work in small or large areas. Though I have already discussed classroom mapping in a previous chapter, I think it makes sense to introduce the baseline and offset method in the classroom to clarify the method and principles. Then it makes sense to transport the method out into the school yard and eventually out into the community This technique can be introduced to your students in the context of a common classroom problem Ask the class to imagine that over the upcom— ing vacation, the school maintenance staff needs to fix the ceiling or clean and wax the floor in your classroom. All of the tables, shelves, easels, chairs, rugs, and other furnishings will be moved out to the hall during this proj— ect. When the work is done, the maintenance staff might not remember how the classroom was arranged. Ask, “How can you make a map of the classroom so the furniture will be put back in exactly the same location?” An emphasis on accuracy raises the stakes from just doing a sketch of the furniture arrangement to using a more sophisticated mapping technique. Once the children are engaged with the idea, here are the steps to take. Choose a Suitable Baseline A baseline is a fixed line from which all of your measurements will be made. Once you’ve completed all of your measurements, you’ll transfer the baseline onto a piece of paper and plot locations from it onto your map. The baseline should be chosen on the basis of ease of use. One natural baseline might be the molding where the wall meets the floor. This will work if the wall is easily accessible all along the side of the classroom so that measurements can be made from the wall outward. However, in many cases heating units and shelves make access to the wall difficult. Another choice is to choose a straight joint running between two floor boards, or two rows of tiles somewhere near the middle of the classroom. From this kind of baseline, measurements can be taken in both directions. Children can access both sides of a middle line, which makes it easier to have more children collecting data simultaneously Divide the Baseline into Appropriate Units Your baseline essentially serves as a long ruler, so you have to break it up into appropriate units. One handy unit is often the natural dimension of tiles on the floor of your classroom. These tiles are often twelve inches square, which gives you a built~in measuring system. if tiles are not avail— able, then choose an appropriate unit for subdividing your baseline. The unit will depend on the parameters of the mapping project. Since there is a lot to be mapped in a small space in a classroom, a relatively small unit is appropriate, such as one foot or twenty centimeters. its also useful to choose a unit that can easily be divided in half. Mark off the total length of your baseline with these units. Draw Freehand Sketches of the Classroom Arrangement or Create Recording Systems for Collecting Data In preparation for collecting data for the map, the students need to have a system for recording their information. One possibility is to create a grid V,a...m.meowwwwamwaWWWWWW It Takes a Village to Raise a Child '79 lAPMAK/NC I'ITH CHILDREN 3 5-4 ing distances 1e baseline and tethod. The 9 allows the to make sure that aments are taken angles to the > that identifies each piece of furniture, the offset distance, and the point at which each piece is located along the baseline. While this system is effec~ tive, i find that it often leads to numbers getting misplaced and confused. I prefer to have students collect data on a freehand sketch map that shows the approximate location of each object of furniture and attaches the mea~ surements to a Visual picture of each thing that is being located This sys~ tem can also cause problems if children try to collect too much data in a small space. Nonetheless, i find that having a freehand visual plan helps to keep students oriented and focused. Demonstrate Measuring Offset Distances The next task is to measure the distance from the baseline to each of the pieces of furniture in your room. One of the inherent challenges in this process is having children realize that the measurements must always be made at a right angle to the baseline. If you do not demonstrate this process, children will be casual about their measuring. Take one object, such as the leg of a table, and demonstrate measuring to the baseline using three different pieces of string. Have one string travel from the baseline to the table leg at a right angle, and have the others be off by 10 or 20 degrees. Then compare the three distances from the table leg to the baseline and have children try to explain why they are different A simple way to make sure the offset string or measuring tape is per~ pendicular to the baseline is to use a T square, a book, a stiff piece of pa— per, or a large right~angle triangle placed at the juncture between the baseline and the offset line to act as a guide (see Figure 5—4). Measure the Offset Distances Have children work in teams to collect all of their own information, or subdivide the tasks so that each team collects some of the information and then shares it with the other teams. Measuring tapes are excellent for mea» suring offset distances. if strings are used, they should be divided up into the same units as the baseline. Many small problems may emerge when measuring offset distances. These guidelines may be helpful. Have children keep the offset measuring strings tight as they collect data. Remind children to make sure that the angle between the baseline and the offset string is a right angle. Explain that accurately locating a desk or chair will require more than just measuring the distance to one leg, Clarify what to do in a situation in which the edge of a table extends out over the legs of a table. (There is no “right” answer; many solu~ tions work equally well.) Discuss whether it’s better to measure the offset from the baseline to the object or from the object to the baseline. Set the starting point on the offset strings an inch or two from the end of the string so that children have a place to hold on to the string. This will also allow them to easily place the zero point on the edge of the baseline . Draw a Floor Plan Map of the Room Here are some guidelines for this task. 1. Large paper (perhaps a 24—by~36~inch piece) will work best for creating these maps. Large graph paper with one~inch squares is optimal; it will be easy to determine a scale of l tile = 1 inch Oth~ erwise, you will need to determine a scale for your map. For guidelines. please see the worksheet titled “Drawing a Map to Scale” on page 150. 2. Locate the walls of the classroom on your graph paper and then lo~ cate the baseline in the correct location. Divide your map baseline into the same number of segments as your real baseline. 3. Now locate objects on your map by measuring the appropriate number of units along the baseline and placing a dot there. From this dot, measure the appropriate amount of offset distance and place a dot there. This second dot represents the location of one of the legs of a chair or a table in the classroom. Locate the location of the other legs of this object and then connect these together to cre ate a View from above or symbol of that object. 4. Once you have drawn the location of all of the objects, add a title, legend, scale, and compass rose to your map (see Figure 5—5). . . .. WW.swxwmwwprw/ammxmsmefixs It Takes a Village to Raise a Child '81 l" i i MAPMAKING WITH CHILDREN RE 5‘5 room map drawn r baseline and offset 0d. The topography of a classroom doesn’t present a terribly interesting mapping challenge and it doesn’t get your students out into the natural world. But learning the measuring techniques of the baseline and offset method and learning to handle all of the data are both big tasks. Mastering these skills in a controlled environment will make logistics management much easier once you head for the great outdoors. USING THE BASELlNE AND OFFSET METHOD FOR OUTDOOR MAPPING 1 observed a wonderful utilization of the baseline and offset method in a mapping project at the South Brent Primary School in Devon, England. Di~ rectly adjacent to the classroom of the fourth and fifth graders was a small, oval, cement frog pond about two meters long. The pond had been con— structed as a class project some years before During the spring, summer, and fall it provided a home for small amphibians, a few water lilies, and other wetland plants. in the winter, however, it often froze solid, thereby killing the salamanders and frogs. Each year, it had to be stocked with new amphibians, or wandering amphibians had to find their way to it. The teachers and students decided that they could prevent the annual die—off by creating a miniature bog adjacent to the frog pond. This bog would provide a place for the amphibians to winter so they could reinhabit the pond once winter passed. in order to design the bog, they needed a map of the pond and the adjacent areas so that varying designs could be drawn and discussed by the class. A group of about six ten—year~olds took on the project instead of participating in a math unit that they already un~ derstood. The pond was surrounded by a small area of lawn and shrubs that measured about fifteen meters by eight meters. This was bounded on two sides by sidewalks and on a third side by a fence separating the playground from a road (see Figure 5—6). It was only about ten meters from the class room door to the pond, which made the study area quickly accessible. The teacher created a baseline by staking out a string that followed the edge of one of the sidewalks. When the sidewalk stopped, the baseline continued in a straight line along the same bearing as the edge of the side— walk. The baseline was marked at one-meter increments and extended about twenty meters. Students first located the sidewalks, fences, and out~ side edges of the pond by measuring offset distances, using long tape mea~ sures and a T square to assure right angles. To lay out the shape of the pond, for instance, they found the point on the baseline that was parallel to the west end of the pond nearest the wooden fence. This was at 3.0 meters along the baseline. Then they mea~ sured the offset distance to the pond edge and found it was .8 meters. At 4.0 meters along the baseline, the near edge of the pond was at .1 meters, and the far edge of the pond was at 1.8 meters. They kept measuring at .5 meter increments and recorded the following data. Measurements for Recording Pond Location Ofiset distance to Ofiset distance to Distance along baseline near edge of pond far edge of pond 30 meters ‘8 meters (west end of pond) 3.5 meters .2 meters 16 meters 4.0 meters .1 meters 18 meters 4.5 meters .1 meters 15 meters 5.0 meters .4 meters 12 meters 5.2 meters {7 meters (east end of pond) It Takes a Village to Raise a Child ‘83 gm MAPMAKING WITH CHILDREN RE 5—6 -y map of goldfish and surroundings ed by fifth graders in ish Classroom. Then they» determined a scale for the map. Since the area they were dealing with was 15 meters long and the paper they had available was 30 centimeters long, they changed 15 meters to 1500 centimeters and divided to get a scale of 1:50. That meant that 1 centimeter on the paper equaled 50 centimeters of real distance, or 2 centimeters equaled 1 meter. They plotted the location of the sidewalks, fences, and pond edge and then re- turned outside to locate specific shrubs, rocks, locations of wildflowers, and iampposts. These were then plotted on the maps. Since this was a special project, these children had to do much of this work on their own. And even though they were mathematically compe- tent, the conceptual movement from data collection to survey map was substantial. I think this is a good indicator that even when dealing with small areas, we have to stay attuned to the conceptual challenge inherent within any task. This task was just within what Vygotsky called the zone of 1 wile l l l r i x i i l l Bialhe @Wi‘r‘o Fence ____) SUMOCTFQC Gross [ i i i J r 5 Wooden Fence ‘4 rm refers to the mental realm hat they can be challenged to children just proximal distance for these children Thi: te between what children solidly grasp an w learn. Being in that zone means that this task stretched these the right amount. It was hard but not overwhelmingf onceptual sophisti— When encouraging children to add a new layer 0 C end it. Going ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ' ‘ ' ne and not g0 be)’ cation, it is important to stay Within this 20 m and feeling a sense ' unin o ‘ beyond the zone leads to being frustrated, t g thin the Zone m— of incompetence that undermines learning. Staying “we”? Challenged“ vokes a sense of flow; children are excited to be appropl‘ Further Afield dies of larger areas. baseline, the task i As long as there is s relatively simple. necessary to take bearings It is easy to adapt this method for stu an available straight line to use as a ‘ When straight lines are not available, it becomes This is bevond our Zone using a compass or simple surveying equipment. 10“ Stréight road, the of proximal distance for the moment. However, a 1 [1561 Straight section edge of a field, a straight line bordering a park, a re a Y b baseline from ‘ ' ’ all be used as t e g of stream, or a straight section of trail can dies, dism no 5 of which local area studies can emerg . ‘ dings can an stem flora and fauna, and the examination 0 d from this use of the baseline and offset metho . fies for collaborative These larger studies provide excellent opporgllfimg a land use study ss is con ‘ work amongst many Students. If the cla {Children can be asggned along a section of road near the school, groups Od 1n this cast each group to each block or to fifty-meter sections of . collects information on their section an final map (see Figure 5—7). ‘ . Another method of organization is . sponsible for different sets of inforrnatio teams could be responsible for: the roa d then pools the data to create the ants of students be re- tO have [6 dy, different n. On a street 5m , mm, ,. ,,w»,“Ms/wwnflamw/WfiMWmWWW‘Wig L ‘f’ 85 to‘R‘a‘isea Chfi: I FlGURE 5—7 Three-dimensional wall mural of the village created by third graders in Temple, New Hamp- shire. The school is located in the lower right-hand corner of the mural. It Takesa Village ! 87 to Raise a Child MAPMAKINC communities and classes of schoolchildren did, A parish map is a map of :WITH CHILDREN Sketching the profiles of buildings ‘ I Determining the locations of electrical poles Locating all features that lead to underground facilities (manhole cov~ ers, drainage grates, culverts, etc) Sketching and locating all traffic signs Notlng sightings and signs of animals Noting sightings of birds and their nesting areas identifying and locating trees Noting the amount of traffic on the streets , . , i\oting the number of pedestrians and their routes of travel Wa ’ ‘ ‘ [e ‘ ECl’lll’lg the information come together and determining the pat~ rns 1s ascinating. Discuss these questions with the class Are the telephone poles all located the same distance a art? Do different trees grow on different sides of the street? p . Which kinds of trees do birds prefer? ‘ Were all of the buildings built around the same time? How do all the sewer lines fit together undergroundl Are all the traffic signs located the same distance from the street? mingUtprieristanding thfise yisible patterns provides the foundation for exam a er geograp ica patterns For exa ' ' y . mple wh 1s this ’t l the mouth of a river? Wh ‘ ’ 7 y C1 y ocamd at . y didnt more people settle in this a ? I V ’ rea. What deter~ m . tolilfisléhe rrgggationhroutes of birds? These kinds of questions are often posed 1 ren e ore t ey’ve done geo ’ ' ' graphical thinking about area th h mapped themselves But once th ' ‘ S ey ave . e issues of location human/ ' ‘ teractions and movement have b ’ ' , ermronmem m“ h , een studied in a small world ' j j , students have a jumping~off pornt for understanding these concepts in the larger world CLASSROOM PORTRAITS: SMALL TOWN TOPOGRAPHY The Parish Maps Project Rosemary Riddell and David Sobel, Grades 3—4 South Brent, Devon, England Walk into any news a ’ ’ V gents shop in rural England for our c f 3311)? newspapefr ind you’ll also find racks and racks of rrfaps £5137st fff: age, maps 0 t e nearby cities the Ordinance S l , urve ma s of th 1 Itrolpografphy (analogous to our USGS maps), National Pafk mgps andeoflf: aps 0 various co ors and scales. This is in sha , ' unavailability of high~qualit ' ’ rp comma to the rdatwe ‘ y maps in the United States It cam prlse, then, when l discovered that one of th ‘ f e as no sup ‘ I h e most 1nnovative and excitin prOjects for mapmaking With children was ‘ ’ ' g . t ‘ alive and [l1er th the ignited Kingdom in the late 1980s and early 1990s. mg mughom Hid Know Your PlacemMake a Map of iti”,proclaims the Parish Maps g e (see blbliography), and that’s exactly what more than five hundred the local community made not by cartographers but by the people who live in the community The “parish,” analogou s to a township in the United States, is the smallest building block of governmental organization. Exeter, a city of one hundred thousand people in southwest England, has eighteen parishes within its city limits, so here the parish might be analogous to the voting “wards” in American cities. Locally grown Parish maps don’t just show roads and parks, municipal buildings and schools Rather, communities are encouraged to make maps that show the features that local people feel an attachment tomfavorite trees, pathways, resting spots, sites of local folklore. And maps aren’t just lines on paper; they can be artistic expressions in a variety of media. Tom Greeves, direc~ tor of the project, explained, Our primary purpose is to promote and celebrate the importance of the familiar and commonplace to which people are attached, so the whole basis of conservation is broadened. We want to build the confidence of people to express the feelings they have about their surroundings and to share these with others. It’s as impor— tant to preserve the ordinary and familiar things that we care dearly about as it is to preserve the rare and spectacular things that we see only once in a lifetime. In the classroom While most Parish Maps projects were spearheaded by community mem~ ok on projects in their classrooms. The encour~ bers, numerous teachers to of maps of all agement to explore a variety of media has led to the creation shapes, sizes, and textures. Tapestries, quilts, photo montages, and three~ dimensional models have all been used as map vehicles. One school in the industrial city of Sheffield based a whole term’s work around the idea. Children made maps of their home territory, histor- ical maps, survey maps, spider maps, truancy maps (showing where kids went when they skipped school), and even burglar maps (constructed with the assistance of local police, showing where robberies frequently oc- curred). These maps were painted, drawn, and created in textile and col~ lage, Parents also contributed to the project, writing impressions of their surroundings. The maps were displayed all around the classroom and gave a wonderful sense of a multidisciplinary approach to learning, crossing boundaries between science, local history, art, creative writing, natural his tory, mathematics, geography, and craft work (see Figure 5‘8). Special places Rosemary Riddell and I created a classroom parish map with her class of thirtv~five seven- and eight~vear—olds in the autumn of 1987. Our objective It Takesa Village | 89 map created by ‘ d tap into the real emotions that connected chil~ ; working on a 43135 project in fish classroom, dren and place. We wanted the good, the bad, and the ugly. As a result, we discovered all kinds of idiosyncratic places that wouldn’t led guidebooks. The churchyard at night, i make it into even the most detai the creepy village toilets, and underneath the railroad bridge were all scary places for the children, Lots of children talked about Fat Man’s Trouble-v I an extremely narrow public footpath between two stone walls that circum- ferentially challenged people wouldn’t fit through One child identified the bridge where he played Poohsticks, and other kids talked about the valley ' a local folklore figure, allegedly lived. We where the Beast of Dartmoor, f students work on small pictures of had individual children or pairs 0 these places. Gradually, over the weeks, we built up a collage of the parish As opposed to ’ that captured the children’s mythology and personal lore. the hard~edged feeling of conventional maps, ours developed a lived-in feeling. MAP/MAKING WITH CHILDREN was to create a map of children’s S ec- 1 V . , :rlem’ :Dcommumty of a few thousagd Emilicislgeéh? pinsh Of SOmh 'k I their neighborhoods. One group of children made a composite illustration gig/e :rtmdoor National Park. m t e hlfls on the " of Mucky Lane a slightly eerie farm lane near their homes On the map to Raise a Child s . . , . their neigfijih b3; hams éhlldren draw a map of the Special 1 p ‘ ‘ one child wrote, “When i walk down Mucky Lane in the fog it feels like (hams 1 oo s—favorite places Where they pla ed . h . p aces m someone is creeping up behind me.” Another group identified an impor~ dude: 31:: Psalms) and places to explore, S: Ch?£re::e:fs Ohby tant bridge where they liked to play, and one child wrote, “This is the hole e ens, tree tons, 4 3135 m“ ' th b 'd th t d t k h th h.” S: aiafidnned house su5§>ected of hparrlggifgaéggf andhthe ghofl house I m eOnnthiewall :rfhhsilsasl:r:onfr Fididlrlftedrzliunbyhvefoot map of c i ' v * i on t r j s w, , local “6:561: 1n Ipeighborhoocl groups and had them work o: 1:111:01 fifng l the parish, including the river Avon, the major roads, and the railroad line. , M g to make composite maps of everythm h ps 0 then We located where each child lived, and then cut up their maps and started g f CY knew abOut l to add pieces of their maps to the class map. During this process, we iden~ tified some of the special places around the center of the village. 1 did this 5 by passing out a worksheet that asked children to list beautiful places, ‘8 OW ' scary places, friendly places, junky places, exciting places, quiet places, and dangerous places. Our objective was to get beyond the well~known Teaching about scale To help the children understand the idea of scale, 1 created the Incredible of a child’s house that was much too Shrinking Machine. I took a picture large for the scale of the class map and asked the children if we should at— “it’s way too big.” 1 took the tach it to the map. “No!” they all chorused, picture, slipped it inside the envelope, had the children say a shrinking in— cantation with me, and then opened the envelope. inside was the same drawing, but it was half the size as before. We tried it again, and they all agreed that it still didn’t look right. We shrank it again and again until we got it down to the right size for our map. This magic was accomplished through predrawn sketches of various sizes that were all in the envelope from the start. Nowadays, of course, photocopier reductions would make d tell that these were all this easy to do. But the fact that the children coul real pencil drawings made the reductions seem even more magical. l After this, whenever children brought a contribution for the map that ded to be put in the shrinking was too large, 1 said that the drawing nee 90 MAPMA KING WITH CHILDREN - 1 T keg a Village 9 histOl‘Y and life 0f lttoaRaise a Child l d d annotations told of the _ 1y locate a an , S ectiVE- b riedi” . _ were exact hildrens p“ P . 7 do 5 are U ~ birtffllage mostly from thee; mint—“This is Whilr I:111ycksaitd SWamp- Be- l . , - e ’ ‘ w _ Incredible Shnnkin t Some ofcthe 5:331:26 fantasticw“lmpéniggtfaqgophey hole that 511:3}?t ' - tende tow ” {5 even mC - ter West ‘1 _ " other; Strange life forms Stuffii; Westminster to Westmms . . 2‘: Ware d an the Way and What was inappropriate ThisvleieSIZIeiietzfgfiiafhiishliligi tahl: ‘L I I I posedly StretChe . 1 _ : ' hich a mathematical understandi ‘ ' Ordance with demo- . d d had to be VOted or} m smeCttitaiiCeCs results whatever was 1min: heated exchanges d1? 50:“was the diam??? {hat ' cratic pf§::i:i: that generated Sirilgs {aeteidrilgie highest pout? llahhffsafioss . e . a We filled the map out by cutting out pieces of cotton, fleece and cor. : militia, long a favorite hllfiflgparemly, the 0W6; (01:58; d the prop- duroy to represent all of the grazing fields around the parish The map de; _‘ * 1 r was no longer aCCessl K“) reach the Pinnacle ha denls’ model Was veloped a patchwork look that was similar to how the land Stiich hikers needed to pass1 the pinnacle 0“ Fhe 53) that bore the in— from on high We made small vehicles for the roads and framed the upper _ “it , Off limits. Consquinéibed Wire suffoundl’flg;l g§nnac1e?” The leg' edges of the map With childrens paintings of moor landscapes It was geo- e :thed in red Paint’ W“ to peopte walking “P t e b SC of the hill left graphically accurate and a work of art. _ SW {ion “15 it £3“ to say 0 the model house at the a The true success of the process however, was in the validation of the scrgpktmountam snatchers 0T1 childrens unique perceptions of the places around them. When as en scribe a favorite public footpath that was shaded and b stream, one boy pensrvely offered “ Another bo ‘ ’ answer. ‘ o doubt as to the childrens one in n A Relief-Model Project ~ - aw wwwwamewwwwmawma ...
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map making ch 5 - WAWWM,WM,MWH . IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO...

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