Chapter-5 - CHAPTER 5 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION general...

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1 CHAPTER 5 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION • general comments • solubility in water • oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions • acid-base reactions
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2 Chemical reactions Reactants Products how ? gas phase: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g) solution: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 I - (aq) PbI 2 (s) collision “mechanism”: reaction rate when T and/or [i]
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3 • conservation of mass balanced chemical equation (Chap 4) • conservation of energy thermochemistry (Chap 7) • complete or partial reaction ? chemical equilibrium (Chaps 15,16,19) K, G • fast or slow reaction ? kinetics (Chap 14 - not covered)
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4 • classification of chemical reactions ? synthesis: SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 4 (l) decomposition: 2 NaHCO 3 (s) Na 2 CO 3 (s) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) • reaction types based on “mechanism” oxidation-reduction via electron (e-) transfer acid-base via proton (H + ) transfer
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5 Solubility in water H 2 O = polar molecular good solvent for ionic compounds NaCl(s) + H 2 O Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) strong H 2 O • • • ions interactions + 2 - +
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6 • high solubility of NaCl in water ~ 360 g/L high [Na + ] and [Cl - ] NaCl(aq) = strong electrolyte (conducts electricity) • range of solubility (g/L) (mol/L) NaF 42 1.0 NaCl 360 6.1 at 25°C NaI 1840 12.3 trend ?
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