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Chapter-15 - CHAPTER 15(15.1 15.6 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM...

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1 CHAPTER 15 (15.1 - 15.6) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM • equilibrium constant (K) • reaction quotient (Q) • Le Châtelier’s principle
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2 chemical equilibrium = reversible , incomplete reaction homogeneous: single physical phase CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + 3 H 2 (g) HF(aq) + H 2 O(l) F - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) heterogeneous: several physical phases Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) AgI(s) Ag + (aq) + I - (aq) H 2 O(l) H 2 O(g)
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3 a A + b B c C + d D forward reverse dynamic equilibrium when rate(forw) = rate(rev) k forw [A] a [B] b = k rev [C] c [D] d k forw , k rev = f(T) [C] c [D] d / [A] a [B] b = k forw /k rev = K c or P C c P D d / P A a P B b = K p equilibrium constant, f(T) note : P i V = n i RT P i = (n i /V)RT = [i]RT
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4 dynamic equilibrium AgI Ag + + I - exchange of radioactive 131 I - ions radioactive AgI(s) Fig. 15-2
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5 equilibrium constant and activities a i = i c i /c 0 or a i = i P i /P 0 activity (no unit ) activity coefficient (=1 for ideal case) reference state 1 mol /L or 1 atm for ideal solutions or mixtures ( i =1), K = a C c a D d / a A a a B b = [C] c [D] d /[A] a [B] b in mol/L = P C c P D d /P A a P B b in atm (no unit )
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