Midterm review

Midterm review - + Conversions: STP: Cl -1 +1 Radio...

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hot emitted + - Proton alpha electron Neutron gamma Gold Foil 2% deflected (Small dense positive charged nucleus) Electrons jump up (unstable) to the excited state from high voltage and come back to ground state and release en P N Electrons have more energy Radio Microwave Infrared UV X-ray Gamma R O Y G B I V 700nm 400nm Planck’s Constant 6.63 x 10 -34 J/Hz “Fingerprint” for an element Liquid: Good conductor Aqueous: In water Free moving ions Good conductor Solid: Geometric pattern No free moving ions Poor conductor Na +1 Metal Low I.E. Low electronegativity Easily lose electrons Cl -1 Non metals High I.E. High electronegativity Gains electrons Shared pair of electrons Pi Bonds π Double or triple bonds 2 unhybridized ‘p’ orbitals overlapping parallel to the axis Low stability/FIE Low stability/FIE High stability/FIE Low electron affinity It takes two -1’s to cancel out the +2 “Hypo” “ite” “Ite” “Ate” “Per” “ate” Yields s leave out the subscripts on the product side unless it’s a polyatomic ion or a diatomic that is “alone” Look for the seven shape on the periodic table Think of H 2 O as H +1 OH -1 Exception: 1 N 2 + 3 H 2 2 NH 3 To the smallest decimal place Percents are to the tenth place .5 X2 .3 X3 .25 X4 Assume 100g sample Lowest Sig Digits (Leading 0’s are not sig figs) atter how much I complain, I am only going to have 6 cookies. The limiting reactant is the 6 cookies and the excess is 10 © Limiting Reactant Excess Conversions: 1cm 3 = 1mL 1L = 1dm 3 512cm 3 = .512 dm 3 0°C = 273K STP: 101.3 KPa 760 torr 760 mmHg 1 atm R= Ideal Gas Constant Don’t round this value Moles = . Mass GivenMolec Mass Andrew Rosen States of Matter Mixture: Matter that contains 2 or more different materials Heterogeneous Mixture: Mixture that is composed of 2 or more compounds (ex: soda) that can’t be separated and is not evenly distributed Homogeneous Matter: In 1 phase. Is evenly distributed throughout the sample (can be extracted by distillation) Homogeneous Mixture (Solution): Proportions may vary. You can separate the components physically (ex: salt water) Pure Substance: Includes elements and compounds Physical Property: Observed without producing a new substance Extensive: Depends on amount of sample (ex: mass, volume, weight) Intensive: Doesn’t depend on the amount of sample (ex: density, boiling point, odor) Chemical Property: Reacts or doesn’t react with other substance and creates to new properties Kinetic Molecular Theory: Matter is composed of small particles traveling in a continuous motion Energy transfers from collisions Exothermic Reaction: Reaction which releases energy (warm) Endothermic Reaction: Reaction that absorbs energy (cold) Activation Energy: Minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction Specific Heat Capacity (Cp): Amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 gram of a substance 1°C Joules (J): Heat energy (q) q = (m)( T)(Cp) Heat loss = Heat gain (m)( T)(Cp) = (m)(
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Midterm review - + Conversions: STP: Cl -1 +1 Radio...

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