Nuclear Chem Review

Nuclear Chem Review - Andrew Rosen Nuclear Chem: Study of...

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56141Ba + 3 01n 3692Kr Andrew Rosen Nuclear Chem: Study of changes in the nucleus of an atom and the energy transfer motions that result. These changes occur when subatomic particles are added or omitted from the atom (quanta of energy) Isoptope: An element with the same atomic number but different mass number Natural Radioactivity: Spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus of an atom. Energy and/or particles are released Transmutation: One element changing into another by being struck by a neutron or other nucleus Commonly written as the target nucleus, bombarding particle, ejected particle, and product nucleus in that order As nuclear charge increases on the projectile or target, the speed of the projectile must increase to create a nuclear reaction Neutrons, since they are neutral, don’t need to be accelerated to cause a reaction o + 714N 24He 817O + 11H o Also called: ( , ) 714N α p 817O Artificial Radioactivity : An element can be made radioactive by bombarding nuclei with high-energy particles Artificial transmutations that produce elements with atomic numbers above 92 are called transuranium elements 49Be + 11H 36Li + 24He *Will always have multiple reactants* Alpha Decay ( ) α 24He or 24α Massive Positive charge (deflected by positive plate and attracted to negative) Travel around 10,000 mi/sec Stopped by paper Decreases both the neutrons and protons in the nucleus by two o 92238U 24He + 90234Th o o Beta Decay ( β - ) - 10e or - 10β Light Negative charge (deflected by negative plate and attracted to positive) Travels around 100,000 mi/sec Goes through paper, but is stopped by lead Decreases neutrons and increases protons in nucleus Is equivalent to a neutron converting into a proton and an electron 01n 11p + - 10e
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o 53131I - 10e + 54131Xe o o Gamma Radiation ( ) γ No charge (undeflected) No mass Travels around 186,000 mi/sec (speed of light) o o Positron Emission ( β + ) + 10e or + 10β Produces gamma radiation when in contact with matter (don’t need to write in gamma radiation) Increase the number of neutrons and decreases the number of protons in the nucleus
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Nuclear Chem Review - Andrew Rosen Nuclear Chem: Study of...

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