CHEM301 F08 CA4 key

CHEM301 F08 CA4 key - CHEM 301, Fall 2008 Dr. Ruder Class...

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CHEM 301, Fall 2008 Dr. Ruder Class Activity 4 Nomenclature of Alkanes How do we name organic compounds? Model 1: Straight Chain Alkanes # Carbons Prefix Name Structure 1 Meth Methane CH 4 2 Eth Ethane CH 3 CH 3 3 Prop Propane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 4 But Butane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 5 Pent Pentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 6 Hex Hexane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 7 Hept Heptane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 8 Oct Octane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 9 Non Nonane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 10 Dec Decane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Questions: 1. Based on the information in Table 1, how is the prefix modified to name a straight chain alkane? ? The prefix is modified by adding –ane to the end. 2. The prefix dodec means twelve carbons. Give the name of the corresponding alkane and draw the structure. Dodecane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Model 2: Branched Alkanes- Note that a dash separates a number and a letter in a name. Structure Parent Chain #C in parent Substituent #C in substituent Name A propane 3 methyl 1 2-methylpropane B butane 4 methyl 1 2-methylbutane C pentane 5 ethyl 2 3-ethylpentane D hexane 6 methyl 1 3-methylhexane Questions: 3 . For compound A in Model 2. (a). How many carbons are in the parent chain? Circle the parent chain. (b). How many carbons are in the substituent? Put a box around the substituent. (c). Number the carbons in the parent chain consecutively.
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CHEM 301, Fall 2008 Dr. Ruder (d). Why is there a number 2 in front of the methyl in the name? The number tells where the substituent is attached to the parent. 1 2 3 4. Complete the table for B, C and D. 5. (a). For compound B in Model 2, number the carbons in the parent chain consecutively. (b). Does your numbering scheme agree with the name given? yes (c). If not, renumber the chain so the numbering agrees with the name. (d). The name for compound B is 2-methylbutane, not 3-methylbutane. What conclusion can you make for numbering substituents? Always number the parent chain to give the lowest possible numbers to the substituents. 1 2 3 4 6 . (a). For compound D, circle the parent chain. Does the parent have six carbons? (b). If not circle a chain with six continuous carbons. See below (c). The parent name for compound D is 3-methylhexane not 2-ethylpentane. What conclusion can you make about choosing the parent chain? Find the longest chain even though it may not be in a straight line.
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CHEM301 F08 CA4 key - CHEM 301, Fall 2008 Dr. Ruder Class...

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