Linux From Scratch

Linux From Scratch - Linux From Scratch Linux From Scratch...

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Unformatted text preview: Linux From Scratch Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Linux From Scratch............................................................................................................................................1 Gerard Beekmans.....................................................................................................................................1 Dedication............................................................................................................................................................2 Preface................................................................................................................................................................10 Who would want to read this book ..................................................................................................................11 Who would not want to read this book...........................................................................................................12 Organization......................................................................................................................................................13 Part I − Introduction...............................................................................................................................13 Part II − Installation of the LFS system.................................................................................................13 Part III − Appendixes .............................................................................................................................13 I. Part I − Introduction.....................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................15 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................16 How things are going to be done ......................................................................................................................17 Book versions.....................................................................................................................................................18 Acknowledgements...........................................................................................................................................19 Changelog..........................................................................................................................................................20 Mailinglists and archives..................................................................................................................................27 lfs−discuss..............................................................................................................................................27 lfs−config...............................................................................................................................................27 lfs−apps..................................................................................................................................................27 lfs−announce..........................................................................................................................................28 linux.......................................................................................................................................................28 alfs−discuss............................................................................................................................................28 How to subscribe?..................................................................................................................................28 How to unsubscribe?..............................................................................................................................29 Mail archives ..........................................................................................................................................29 Contact information ..........................................................................................................................................30 Chapter 2. Important information..................................................................................................................31 About $LFS ........................................................................................................................................................32 i Linux From Scratch Table of Contents How to download the software .........................................................................................................................33 How to install the software...............................................................................................................................34 II. Part II − Installing the LFS system............................................................................................................36 Chapter 3. Packages you need to download...................................................................................................37 Chapter 4. Preparing a new partition.............................................................................................................40 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................41 Creating a new partition..................................................................................................................................42 Creating a ext2 file system on the new partition............................................................................................43 Mounting the new partition.............................................................................................................................44 Creating directories..........................................................................................................................................45 Chapter 5. Preparing the LFS system.............................................................................................................46 How and why things are done..........................................................................................................................47 Installing Bash...................................................................................................................................................48 Installation of Bash................................................................................................................................48 Contents.................................................................................................................................................48 Description.............................................................................................................................................48 Installing Binutils..............................................................................................................................................49 Installation of Binutils...........................................................................................................................49 Description.............................................................................................................................................49 Description.............................................................................................................................................49 ld...............................................................................................................................................49 as...............................................................................................................................................49 ar...............................................................................................................................................49 nm.............................................................................................................................................49 objcopy ......................................................................................................................................50 objdump....................................................................................................................................50 ranlib.........................................................................................................................................50 size............................................................................................................................................50 strings........................................................................................................................................50 strip...........................................................................................................................................50 c++filt.......................................................................................................................................51 addr2line...................................................................................................................................51 nlmconv....................................................................................................................................51 ii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installing Bzip2 ..................................................................................................................................................52 Installation of Bzip2 ...............................................................................................................................52 Contents.................................................................................................................................................52 Description.............................................................................................................................................52 Bzip2.........................................................................................................................................52 Bunzip2.....................................................................................................................................52 bzcat..........................................................................................................................................52 bzip2recover.............................................................................................................................53 . Installing Diffutils.............................................................................................................................................54 Installation of Diffutils ...........................................................................................................................54 Contents.................................................................................................................................................54 Description.............................................................................................................................................54 cmp and diff..............................................................................................................................54 diff3 ...........................................................................................................................................54 sdiff...........................................................................................................................................54 Installing Fileutils ..............................................................................................................................................55 Installation of Fileutils...........................................................................................................................55 Contents.................................................................................................................................................55 Description.............................................................................................................................................55 chgrp.........................................................................................................................................55 chmod ........................................................................................................................................55 chown........................................................................................................................................55 cp ...............................................................................................................................................56 dd..............................................................................................................................................56 df...............................................................................................................................................56 ls, dir and vdir...........................................................................................................................56 dircolors....................................................................................................................................56 du..............................................................................................................................................56 install ........................................................................................................................................56 . ln...............................................................................................................................................56 mkdir.........................................................................................................................................57 mkfifo ........................................................................................................................................57 mknod.......................................................................................................................................57 mv.............................................................................................................................................57 rm..............................................................................................................................................57 rmdir.........................................................................................................................................57 . sync...........................................................................................................................................57 touch ..........................................................................................................................................57 Installing GCC on the normal system if necessary........................................................................................58 Installation of GCC on the normal system if necessary .........................................................................58 Contents.................................................................................................................................................58 Description.............................................................................................................................................58 Compiler...................................................................................................................................59 Pre−processor...........................................................................................................................59 iii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents C++ Library..............................................................................................................................59 Installing GCC on the LFS system..................................................................................................................60 Installation of GCC on the LFS system.................................................................................................60 Creating necessary symlinks .....................................................................................................60 Contents.................................................................................................................................................60 Description.............................................................................................................................................61 Compiler...................................................................................................................................61 Pre−processor...........................................................................................................................61 C++ Library..............................................................................................................................61 Installing Linux Kernel....................................................................................................................................62 Installation of Linux Kernel...................................................................................................................62 Contents.................................................................................................................................................62 Description.............................................................................................................................................62 Installing Glibc..................................................................................................................................................63 A note on the glibc−crypt package........................................................................................................63 Installation of Glibc...............................................................................................................................63 Copying old NSS library files................................................................................................................64 Contents.................................................................................................................................................65 Description.............................................................................................................................................65 Installing Grep..................................................................................................................................................66 Installation of Grep................................................................................................................................66 Contents.................................................................................................................................................66 Description.............................................................................................................................................66 egrep ..........................................................................................................................................66 fgrep..........................................................................................................................................66 grep...........................................................................................................................................66 Installing Gzip...................................................................................................................................................67 Installation of Gzip................................................................................................................................67 Contents.................................................................................................................................................67 Description.............................................................................................................................................67 gunzip ........................................................................................................................................67 gzexe.........................................................................................................................................67 gzip ............................................................................................................................................68 zcat............................................................................................................................................68 zcmp..........................................................................................................................................68 zdiff...........................................................................................................................................68 zforce........................................................................................................................................68 zgrep ..........................................................................................................................................68 zmore........................................................................................................................................68 znew..........................................................................................................................................68 Installing Make ..................................................................................................................................................69 iv Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installation of Make...............................................................................................................................69 Contents.................................................................................................................................................69 Description.............................................................................................................................................69 Installing Sed.....................................................................................................................................................70 Installation of Sed..................................................................................................................................70 Contents.................................................................................................................................................70 Description.............................................................................................................................................70 Installing Shellutils ............................................................................................................................................71 Installation of Shellutils.........................................................................................................................71 Contents.................................................................................................................................................71 Description.............................................................................................................................................71 basename ...................................................................................................................................71 chroot........................................................................................................................................71 date............................................................................................................................................71 dirname.....................................................................................................................................71 echo...........................................................................................................................................72 env .............................................................................................................................................72 expr...........................................................................................................................................72 factor.........................................................................................................................................72 false...........................................................................................................................................72 groups ........................................................................................................................................72 hostid .........................................................................................................................................72 hostname...................................................................................................................................72 id...............................................................................................................................................72 logname .....................................................................................................................................73 nice............................................................................................................................................73 nohup........................................................................................................................................73 pathchk......................................................................................................................................73 pinky.........................................................................................................................................73 printenv.....................................................................................................................................73 printf.........................................................................................................................................73 . pwd ............................................................................................................................................73 seq.............................................................................................................................................73 sleep..........................................................................................................................................74 stty .............................................................................................................................................74 su...............................................................................................................................................74 tee..............................................................................................................................................74 test.............................................................................................................................................74 true............................................................................................................................................74 tty..............................................................................................................................................74 uname........................................................................................................................................74 uptime.......................................................................................................................................74 users..........................................................................................................................................75 who ............................................................................................................................................75 whoami.....................................................................................................................................75 . v Linux From Scratch Table of Contents yes.............................................................................................................................................75 Installing Tar.....................................................................................................................................................76 Installation of Tar ...................................................................................................................................76 Contents.................................................................................................................................................76 Description.............................................................................................................................................76 tar..............................................................................................................................................76 rmt.............................................................................................................................................76 Installing Textutils............................................................................................................................................77 Installation of Textutils..........................................................................................................................77 Contents.................................................................................................................................................77 Description.............................................................................................................................................77 cat..............................................................................................................................................77 cksum........................................................................................................................................77 comm........................................................................................................................................77 csplit..........................................................................................................................................77 cut.............................................................................................................................................78 . expand.......................................................................................................................................78 fmt.............................................................................................................................................78 fold............................................................................................................................................78 head...........................................................................................................................................78 join............................................................................................................................................78 md5sum .....................................................................................................................................78 nl...............................................................................................................................................78 od..............................................................................................................................................78 paste..........................................................................................................................................79 pr...............................................................................................................................................79 ptx.............................................................................................................................................79 sort............................................................................................................................................79 split...........................................................................................................................................79 . sum............................................................................................................................................79 tac..............................................................................................................................................79 tail.............................................................................................................................................79 tr................................................................................................................................................80 tsort...........................................................................................................................................80 unexpand...................................................................................................................................80 uniq...........................................................................................................................................80 wc..............................................................................................................................................80 Creating passwd and group files.....................................................................................................................81 Copying /proc/devices.......................................................................................................................................82 Chapter 6. Installing basic system software...................................................................................................83 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................84 vi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Debugging symbols and compiler optimizations ............................................................................................85 Creating $LFS/root/.bash_profile...................................................................................................................87 Entering the chroot'ed environment...............................................................................................................88 Creating device files..........................................................................................................................................89 Installation of MAKEDEV....................................................................................................................89 Creating the /dev entries........................................................................................................................89 Installing GCC..................................................................................................................................................90 Installation of GCC................................................................................................................................90 Contents.................................................................................................................................................90 Description.............................................................................................................................................90 Compiler...................................................................................................................................90 Pre−processor...........................................................................................................................90 C++ Library..............................................................................................................................90 Installing Bison..................................................................................................................................................91 Installation of Bison...............................................................................................................................91 Contents.................................................................................................................................................91 Description.............................................................................................................................................91 Installing Mawk................................................................................................................................................93 Installation of Mawk..............................................................................................................................93 Contents.................................................................................................................................................93 Description.............................................................................................................................................93 gawk..........................................................................................................................................93 Installing Patch ..................................................................................................................................................94 Installation of Patch...............................................................................................................................94 Contents.................................................................................................................................................94 Description.............................................................................................................................................94 Installing Findutils............................................................................................................................................95 Installing Findutils.................................................................................................................................95 Contents.................................................................................................................................................95 Description.............................................................................................................................................95 Find...........................................................................................................................................95 Locate ........................................................................................................................................95 Updatedb...................................................................................................................................96 Xargs.........................................................................................................................................96 Installing Ncurses..............................................................................................................................................97 Installation of Ncurses...........................................................................................................................97 Contents.................................................................................................................................................97 Description.............................................................................................................................................97 vii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents The libraries..............................................................................................................................97 Tic.............................................................................................................................................97 Infocmp.....................................................................................................................................97 clear ...........................................................................................................................................98 tput............................................................................................................................................98 toe ..............................................................................................................................................98 tset.............................................................................................................................................98 Installing Less....................................................................................................................................................99 Installation of Less.................................................................................................................................99 Contents.................................................................................................................................................99 Description.............................................................................................................................................99 Installing Groff................................................................................................................................................100 Installation of Groff.............................................................................................................................100 Contents...............................................................................................................................................100 Description...........................................................................................................................................100 addftinfo..................................................................................................................................100 afmtodit...................................................................................................................................100 eqn ...........................................................................................................................................100 grodvi......................................................................................................................................100 groff........................................................................................................................................101 grog.........................................................................................................................................101 grohtml....................................................................................................................................101 grolj4.......................................................................................................................................101 grops ........................................................................................................................................101 grotty.......................................................................................................................................101 hpftodit....................................................................................................................................101 indxbib....................................................................................................................................101 lkbib........................................................................................................................................102 lookbib....................................................................................................................................102 neqn .........................................................................................................................................102 nroff........................................................................................................................................102 pfbtops....................................................................................................................................102 pic ............................................................................................................................................102 psbb.........................................................................................................................................102 refer.........................................................................................................................................102 soelim......................................................................................................................................103 tbl............................................................................................................................................103 tfmtodit...................................................................................................................................103 . troff.........................................................................................................................................103 Installing Man.................................................................................................................................................104 Installation of Man...............................................................................................................................104 Contents...............................................................................................................................................104 Description...........................................................................................................................................104 man ..........................................................................................................................................104 viii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents apropos....................................................................................................................................104 whatis......................................................................................................................................104 makewhatis.............................................................................................................................104 Installing Perl..................................................................................................................................................105 Installation of Perl................................................................................................................................105 Contents...............................................................................................................................................105 Description...........................................................................................................................................105 Installing M4 ....................................................................................................................................................106 Installation of M4 .................................................................................................................................106 Contents...............................................................................................................................................106 Description...........................................................................................................................................106 Installing Texinfo............................................................................................................................................108 Installation of Texinfo ..........................................................................................................................108 Contents...............................................................................................................................................108 Description...........................................................................................................................................108 info..........................................................................................................................................108 install−info..............................................................................................................................108 makeinfo.................................................................................................................................108 texi2dvi...................................................................................................................................108 texindex ...................................................................................................................................109 Installing Autoconf ..........................................................................................................................................110 Installation of Autoconf.......................................................................................................................110 Contents...............................................................................................................................................110 Description...........................................................................................................................................110 autoconf..................................................................................................................................110 autoheader...............................................................................................................................110 autoreconf...............................................................................................................................110 autoscan..................................................................................................................................110 autoupdate...............................................................................................................................111 ifnames....................................................................................................................................111 Installing Automake ........................................................................................................................................112 Installation of Automake ......................................................................................................................112 Contents...............................................................................................................................................112 Description...........................................................................................................................................112 aclocal.....................................................................................................................................112 automake.................................................................................................................................112 Installing Bash.................................................................................................................................................113 Installation of Bash..............................................................................................................................113 Contents...............................................................................................................................................113 Description...........................................................................................................................................113 ix Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installing Flex..................................................................................................................................................114 Installation of Flex...............................................................................................................................114 Contents...............................................................................................................................................114 Description...........................................................................................................................................114 Installing File...................................................................................................................................................115 Installation of File................................................................................................................................115 Contents...............................................................................................................................................115 Description...........................................................................................................................................115 Installing Libtool.............................................................................................................................................116 Installation of Libtool..........................................................................................................................116 Contents...............................................................................................................................................116 Description...........................................................................................................................................116 libtool......................................................................................................................................116 libtoolize.................................................................................................................................116 ltdl library...............................................................................................................................116 Installing Bin86...............................................................................................................................................117 Installation of Bin86............................................................................................................................117 Contents...............................................................................................................................................117 Description...........................................................................................................................................117 as86.........................................................................................................................................117 as86_encap..............................................................................................................................117 ld86.........................................................................................................................................117 objdump86..............................................................................................................................117 nm86.......................................................................................................................................118 size86......................................................................................................................................118 Installing Binutils............................................................................................................................................119 Installation of Binutils.........................................................................................................................119 Description...........................................................................................................................................119 Description...........................................................................................................................................119 ld.............................................................................................................................................119 as.............................................................................................................................................119 ar.............................................................................................................................................119 nm...........................................................................................................................................119 objcopy ....................................................................................................................................120 objdump..................................................................................................................................120 ranlib.......................................................................................................................................120 size..........................................................................................................................................120 strings......................................................................................................................................120 strip.........................................................................................................................................120 c++filt.....................................................................................................................................121 addr2line.................................................................................................................................121 nlmconv..................................................................................................................................121 x Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installing Bzip2 ................................................................................................................................................122 Installation of Bzip2 .............................................................................................................................122 Contents...............................................................................................................................................122 Description...........................................................................................................................................122 Bzip2.......................................................................................................................................122 Bunzip2...................................................................................................................................123 bzcat........................................................................................................................................123 bzip2recover...........................................................................................................................123 . Installing Gettext .............................................................................................................................................124 Installation of Gettext..........................................................................................................................124 Contents...............................................................................................................................................124 Description...........................................................................................................................................124 gettext.....................................................................................................................................124 . Installing Consoletools....................................................................................................................................125 Installation of Console−tools...............................................................................................................125 Contents...............................................................................................................................................125 Description...........................................................................................................................................125 charset.....................................................................................................................................125 chvt.........................................................................................................................................125 . codepage.................................................................................................................................125 consolechars............................................................................................................................126 deallocvt..................................................................................................................................126 dumpkeys................................................................................................................................126 fgconsole.................................................................................................................................126 fix_bs_and_del........................................................................................................................126 font2psf...................................................................................................................................126 getkeycodes .............................................................................................................................126 kbd_mode ................................................................................................................................126 loadkeys..................................................................................................................................126 loadunimap ..............................................................................................................................127 mapscrn...................................................................................................................................127 mk_modmap...........................................................................................................................127 openvt.....................................................................................................................................127 . psfaddtable..............................................................................................................................127 psfgettable...............................................................................................................................127 psfstriptable .............................................................................................................................127 resizecons................................................................................................................................127 saveunimap.............................................................................................................................127 screendump.............................................................................................................................128 setfont.....................................................................................................................................128 . setkeycodes.............................................................................................................................128 setleds ......................................................................................................................................128 setmetamode...........................................................................................................................128 setvesablank............................................................................................................................128 showcfont................................................................................................................................128 xi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents showkey..................................................................................................................................128 splitfont...................................................................................................................................128 unicode_start...........................................................................................................................129 unicode_stop...........................................................................................................................129 vcstime....................................................................................................................................129 vt−is−UTF8 .............................................................................................................................129 writevt.....................................................................................................................................129 Installing Consoledata....................................................................................................................................130 Installation of Console−data................................................................................................................130 Contents...............................................................................................................................................130 Installing Diffutils...........................................................................................................................................131 Installation of Diffutils .........................................................................................................................131 Contents...............................................................................................................................................131 Description...........................................................................................................................................131 cmp and diff............................................................................................................................131 diff3 .........................................................................................................................................131 sdiff.........................................................................................................................................131 Installing E2fsprogs........................................................................................................................................132 Installation of E2fsprogs......................................................................................................................132 Contents...............................................................................................................................................132 Description...........................................................................................................................................132 chattr.......................................................................................................................................132 lsattr........................................................................................................................................132 uuidgen ....................................................................................................................................132 badblocks................................................................................................................................133 debugfs....................................................................................................................................133 dumpe2fs .................................................................................................................................133 e2fsck and fsck.ext2 ................................................................................................................133 e2label.....................................................................................................................................133 fsck..........................................................................................................................................133 mke2fs and mkfs.ext2.............................................................................................................133 mklost+found..........................................................................................................................133 tune2fs .....................................................................................................................................134 Installing Ed....................................................................................................................................................135 Installation of Ed..................................................................................................................................135 Contents...............................................................................................................................................135 Description...........................................................................................................................................135 Installing Fileutils ............................................................................................................................................136 Installation of Fileutils.........................................................................................................................136 Contents...............................................................................................................................................136 Description...........................................................................................................................................136 chgrp.......................................................................................................................................136 xii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents chmod ......................................................................................................................................136 chown......................................................................................................................................136 cp .............................................................................................................................................137 dd............................................................................................................................................137 df.............................................................................................................................................137 ls, dir and vdir.........................................................................................................................137 dircolors..................................................................................................................................137 du............................................................................................................................................137 install ......................................................................................................................................137 . ln.............................................................................................................................................137 mkdir.......................................................................................................................................138 mkfifo ......................................................................................................................................138 mknod.....................................................................................................................................138 mv...........................................................................................................................................138 rm............................................................................................................................................138 rmdir.......................................................................................................................................138 . sync.........................................................................................................................................138 touch ........................................................................................................................................138 Installing Grep................................................................................................................................................139 Installation of Grep..............................................................................................................................139 Contents...............................................................................................................................................139 Description...........................................................................................................................................139 egrep ........................................................................................................................................139 fgrep........................................................................................................................................139 grep.........................................................................................................................................139 Installing Gzip.................................................................................................................................................140 Installation of Gzip..............................................................................................................................140 Contents...............................................................................................................................................140 Description...........................................................................................................................................140 gunzip ......................................................................................................................................140 gzexe.......................................................................................................................................140 gzip ..........................................................................................................................................140 zcat..........................................................................................................................................141 zcmp........................................................................................................................................141 zdiff.........................................................................................................................................141 zforce......................................................................................................................................141 zgrep ........................................................................................................................................141 zmore......................................................................................................................................141 znew........................................................................................................................................141 Installing Ldso.................................................................................................................................................142 Installation of Ld.so.............................................................................................................................142 Contents...............................................................................................................................................142 Description...........................................................................................................................................142 ldconfig...................................................................................................................................142 xiii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents ldd...........................................................................................................................................143 Installing Vim..................................................................................................................................................144 Installation of Vim...............................................................................................................................144 Contents...............................................................................................................................................144 Description...........................................................................................................................................144 ctags........................................................................................................................................144 etags........................................................................................................................................144 ex .............................................................................................................................................144 gview .......................................................................................................................................145 gvim........................................................................................................................................145 rgview.....................................................................................................................................145 rgvim.......................................................................................................................................145 rview.......................................................................................................................................145 rvim.........................................................................................................................................145 view .........................................................................................................................................145 vim..........................................................................................................................................145 vimtutor ...................................................................................................................................145 xxd..........................................................................................................................................146 Installing Lilo..................................................................................................................................................147 Installation of Lilo...............................................................................................................................147 Contents...............................................................................................................................................147 Description...........................................................................................................................................147 Installing Make ................................................................................................................................................148 Installation of Make.............................................................................................................................148 Contents...............................................................................................................................................148 Description...........................................................................................................................................148 Installing Modutils..........................................................................................................................................149 Installation of Modutils........................................................................................................................149 Contents...............................................................................................................................................149 Description...........................................................................................................................................149 depmod ....................................................................................................................................149 genksyms................................................................................................................................149 insmod .....................................................................................................................................149 insmod_ksymoops_clean........................................................................................................149 kerneld....................................................................................................................................150 kernelversion ...........................................................................................................................150 ksyms......................................................................................................................................150 lsmod .......................................................................................................................................150 modinfo...................................................................................................................................150 modprobe................................................................................................................................150 rmmod.....................................................................................................................................150 Installing Procinfo ...........................................................................................................................................151 xiv Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installation of Procinfo........................................................................................................................151 Contents...............................................................................................................................................151 Description...........................................................................................................................................151 Installing Procps ..............................................................................................................................................152 Installation of Procps...........................................................................................................................152 Contents...............................................................................................................................................152 Description...........................................................................................................................................152 free..........................................................................................................................................152 kill...........................................................................................................................................152 oldps and ps............................................................................................................................152 skill.........................................................................................................................................153 . snice........................................................................................................................................153 sysctl.......................................................................................................................................153 tload........................................................................................................................................153 top...........................................................................................................................................153 uptime.....................................................................................................................................153 vmstat......................................................................................................................................153 w ..............................................................................................................................................153 watch.......................................................................................................................................154 Installing Psmisc ..............................................................................................................................................155 Installation of Psmisc...........................................................................................................................155 Contents...............................................................................................................................................155 Description...........................................................................................................................................155 fuser........................................................................................................................................155 killall.......................................................................................................................................155 pstree.......................................................................................................................................155 Installing Sed...................................................................................................................................................156 Installation of Sed................................................................................................................................156 Contents...............................................................................................................................................156 Description...........................................................................................................................................156 Installing Shellutils ..........................................................................................................................................157 Installation of Shell Utils.....................................................................................................................157 Contents...............................................................................................................................................157 Description...........................................................................................................................................157 basename .................................................................................................................................157 chroot......................................................................................................................................157 date..........................................................................................................................................157 dirname...................................................................................................................................157 echo.........................................................................................................................................158 env ...........................................................................................................................................158 expr.........................................................................................................................................158 factor.......................................................................................................................................158 false.........................................................................................................................................158 xv Linux From Scratch Table of Contents groups ......................................................................................................................................158 hostid .......................................................................................................................................158 hostname.................................................................................................................................158 id.............................................................................................................................................158 logname ...................................................................................................................................159 nice..........................................................................................................................................159 nohup......................................................................................................................................159 pathchk....................................................................................................................................159 pinky.......................................................................................................................................159 printenv...................................................................................................................................159 printf.......................................................................................................................................159 . pwd ..........................................................................................................................................159 seq...........................................................................................................................................159 sleep........................................................................................................................................160 stty ...........................................................................................................................................160 su.............................................................................................................................................160 tee............................................................................................................................................160 test...........................................................................................................................................160 true..........................................................................................................................................160 tty............................................................................................................................................160 uname......................................................................................................................................160 uptime.....................................................................................................................................160 users........................................................................................................................................161 who ..........................................................................................................................................161 whoami...................................................................................................................................161 . yes...........................................................................................................................................161 Installing Shadowpwd....................................................................................................................................162 Installation of Shadow Password Suite................................................................................................162 Contents...............................................................................................................................................162 Description...........................................................................................................................................162 chage.......................................................................................................................................162 chfn.........................................................................................................................................162 chsh.........................................................................................................................................162 expiry......................................................................................................................................163 faillog......................................................................................................................................163 gpasswd ...................................................................................................................................163 lastlog......................................................................................................................................163 login........................................................................................................................................163 newgrp....................................................................................................................................163 passwd .....................................................................................................................................163 sg.............................................................................................................................................163 su.............................................................................................................................................164 chpasswd.................................................................................................................................164 dpasswd ...................................................................................................................................164 groupadd.................................................................................................................................164 groupdel..................................................................................................................................164 xvi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents groupmod................................................................................................................................164 grpck.......................................................................................................................................164 grpconv...................................................................................................................................164 grpunconv...............................................................................................................................165 logoutd....................................................................................................................................165 mkpasswd ................................................................................................................................165 newusers ..................................................................................................................................165 pwck........................................................................................................................................165 pwconv....................................................................................................................................165 pwunconv................................................................................................................................165 useradd....................................................................................................................................165 userdel.....................................................................................................................................166 usermod ...................................................................................................................................166 vipw and vigr..........................................................................................................................166 Installing Sysklogd..........................................................................................................................................167 Installation of Sysklogd.......................................................................................................................167 Contents...............................................................................................................................................167 Description...........................................................................................................................................167 klogd.......................................................................................................................................167 syslogd....................................................................................................................................167 Installing Sysvinit............................................................................................................................................168 Installation of Sysvinit.........................................................................................................................168 Contents...............................................................................................................................................168 Description...........................................................................................................................................168 pidof........................................................................................................................................168 last...........................................................................................................................................168 lastb.........................................................................................................................................168 mesg........................................................................................................................................168 utmpdump...............................................................................................................................169 wall.........................................................................................................................................169 . halt..........................................................................................................................................169 init...........................................................................................................................................169 killall5.....................................................................................................................................169 poweroff..................................................................................................................................169 reboot......................................................................................................................................169 runlevel...................................................................................................................................170 shutdown.................................................................................................................................170 sulogin .....................................................................................................................................170 telinit.......................................................................................................................................170 Installing Tar...................................................................................................................................................171 Installation of Tar .................................................................................................................................171 Contents...............................................................................................................................................171 Description...........................................................................................................................................171 tar............................................................................................................................................171 xvii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents rmt...........................................................................................................................................171 Installing Textutils..........................................................................................................................................172 Installation of Textutils........................................................................................................................172 Contents...............................................................................................................................................172 Description...........................................................................................................................................172 cat............................................................................................................................................172 cksum......................................................................................................................................172 comm......................................................................................................................................172 csplit........................................................................................................................................172 cut...........................................................................................................................................173 . expand.....................................................................................................................................173 fmt...........................................................................................................................................173 fold..........................................................................................................................................173 head.........................................................................................................................................173 join..........................................................................................................................................173 md5sum ...................................................................................................................................173 nl.............................................................................................................................................173 od............................................................................................................................................173 paste........................................................................................................................................174 pr.............................................................................................................................................174 ptx...........................................................................................................................................174 sort..........................................................................................................................................174 split.........................................................................................................................................174 . sum..........................................................................................................................................174 tac............................................................................................................................................174 tail...........................................................................................................................................174 tr..............................................................................................................................................175 tsort.........................................................................................................................................175 unexpand.................................................................................................................................175 uniq.........................................................................................................................................175 wc............................................................................................................................................175 Installing Utillinux..........................................................................................................................................176 Installation of Util−Linux....................................................................................................................176 Contents...............................................................................................................................................176 Description...........................................................................................................................................177 arch ..........................................................................................................................................177 dmesg......................................................................................................................................177 kill...........................................................................................................................................177 more........................................................................................................................................177 mount......................................................................................................................................177 umount....................................................................................................................................177 agetty .......................................................................................................................................177 blockdev..................................................................................................................................177 cfdisk .......................................................................................................................................178 ctrlaltdel..................................................................................................................................178 xviii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents elvtune .....................................................................................................................................178 fdisk........................................................................................................................................178 fsck.minix...............................................................................................................................178 hwclock...................................................................................................................................178 kbdrate....................................................................................................................................178 losetup.....................................................................................................................................178 mkfs........................................................................................................................................178 mkfs.bfs ...................................................................................................................................179 mkfs.minix..............................................................................................................................179 mkswap...................................................................................................................................179 sfdisk.......................................................................................................................................179 swapoff...................................................................................................................................179 . swapon....................................................................................................................................179 cal............................................................................................................................................179 chkdupexe...............................................................................................................................179 col...........................................................................................................................................179 . colcrt.......................................................................................................................................180 colrm.......................................................................................................................................180 column....................................................................................................................................180 cytune......................................................................................................................................180 ddate........................................................................................................................................180 fdformat..................................................................................................................................180 getopt......................................................................................................................................180 hexdump ..................................................................................................................................180 ipcrm.......................................................................................................................................181 ipcs..........................................................................................................................................181 logger......................................................................................................................................181 look.........................................................................................................................................181 mcookie ...................................................................................................................................181 namei ......................................................................................................................................181 . rename .....................................................................................................................................181 renice .......................................................................................................................................181 rev...........................................................................................................................................181 script.......................................................................................................................................182 . setfdprm..................................................................................................................................182 setsid.......................................................................................................................................182 setterm .....................................................................................................................................182 ul.............................................................................................................................................182 whereis....................................................................................................................................182 write........................................................................................................................................182 ramsize....................................................................................................................................182 rdev.........................................................................................................................................183 readprofile...............................................................................................................................183 rootflags..................................................................................................................................183 swapdev..................................................................................................................................183 tunelp......................................................................................................................................183 vidmode..................................................................................................................................183 xix Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Installing Man−pages ......................................................................................................................................184 Installation of Man−pages...................................................................................................................184 Contents...............................................................................................................................................184 Description...........................................................................................................................................184 Removing old NSS library files ......................................................................................................................185 Configuring essential software .......................................................................................................................186 Configuring Vim..................................................................................................................................186 Configuring Glibc................................................................................................................................186 Configuring Dynamic Loader..............................................................................................................187 Configuring Lilo..................................................................................................................................187 Configuring Sysklogd..........................................................................................................................188 Configuring Shadow Password Suite..................................................................................................188 Configuring Sysvinit............................................................................................................................189 Creating the /var/run/utmp, /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp files....................................................189 Creating root password........................................................................................................................190 Chapter 7. Creating system boot scripts.......................................................................................................191 What is being done here.................................................................................................................................192 Creating directories........................................................................................................................................193 Creating the rc script......................................................................................................................................194 Creating the rcS script ....................................................................................................................................197 Creating the functions script ..........................................................................................................................198 Creating the checkfs script.............................................................................................................................202 Creating the halt script...................................................................................................................................204 Creating the loadkeys script..........................................................................................................................205 Creating the mountfs script...........................................................................................................................206 Creating the reboot script..............................................................................................................................207 Creating the sendsignals script......................................................................................................................208 Creating the setclock script............................................................................................................................209 Creating the /etc/sysconfig/clock file ...................................................................................................209 Creating the sysklogd script...........................................................................................................................210 xx Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Creating the umountfs script.........................................................................................................................211 Setting up symlinks and permissions............................................................................................................212 Creating the /etc/fstab file..............................................................................................................................213 Chapter 8. Setting up basic networking........................................................................................................214 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................215 Installing network software...........................................................................................................................216 Installing Netkit−base..........................................................................................................................216 Installing Net−tools ..............................................................................................................................216 Creating network boot scripts.......................................................................................................................217 Creating the /etc/init.d/localnet bootscript...........................................................................................217 Setting up permissions and symlink....................................................................................................217 Creating the /etc/sysconfig/network file..............................................................................................218 Creating the /etc/hosts file...................................................................................................................218 Creating the /etc/init.d/ethnet script.....................................................................................................219 Editing the /etc/sysconfig/network file................................................................................................219 Setting up permissions and symlink....................................................................................................220 Chapter 9. Making the LFS system bootable...............................................................................................221 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................222 Installing a kernel...........................................................................................................................................223 Adding an entry to LILO...............................................................................................................................224 Testing the system...........................................................................................................................................225 III. Part III − Appendixes..............................................................................................................................226 Appendix A. Package descriptions................................................................................................................227 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................228 Glibc.................................................................................................................................................................229 Contents...............................................................................................................................................229 Description...........................................................................................................................................229 Linux kernel....................................................................................................................................................230 Contents...............................................................................................................................................230 Description...........................................................................................................................................230 xxi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Ed ......................................................................................................................................................................231 Contents...............................................................................................................................................231 Description...........................................................................................................................................231 Patch.................................................................................................................................................................232 Contents...............................................................................................................................................232 Description...........................................................................................................................................232 GCC ..................................................................................................................................................................233 Contents...............................................................................................................................................233 Description...........................................................................................................................................233 Compiler.................................................................................................................................233 Pre−processor.........................................................................................................................233 C++ Library............................................................................................................................233 Bison.................................................................................................................................................................234 Contents...............................................................................................................................................234 Description...........................................................................................................................................234 Mawk ................................................................................................................................................................235 Contents...............................................................................................................................................235 Description...........................................................................................................................................235 gawk........................................................................................................................................235 Findutils...........................................................................................................................................................236 Contents...............................................................................................................................................236 Description...........................................................................................................................................236 Find.........................................................................................................................................236 Locate ......................................................................................................................................236 Updatedb.................................................................................................................................236 Xargs.......................................................................................................................................236 Ncurses.............................................................................................................................................................237 Contents...............................................................................................................................................237 Description...........................................................................................................................................237 The libraries............................................................................................................................237 Tic...........................................................................................................................................237 Infocmp...................................................................................................................................237 clear .........................................................................................................................................237 tput..........................................................................................................................................237 toe ............................................................................................................................................238 tset...........................................................................................................................................238 Less...................................................................................................................................................................239 Contents...............................................................................................................................................239 Description...........................................................................................................................................239 xxii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Groff.................................................................................................................................................................240 Contents...............................................................................................................................................240 Description...........................................................................................................................................240 addftinfo..................................................................................................................................240 afmtodit...................................................................................................................................240 eqn ...........................................................................................................................................240 grodvi......................................................................................................................................240 groff........................................................................................................................................240 grog.........................................................................................................................................240 grohtml....................................................................................................................................241 grolj4.......................................................................................................................................241 grops ........................................................................................................................................241 grotty.......................................................................................................................................241 hpftodit....................................................................................................................................241 indxbib....................................................................................................................................241 lkbib........................................................................................................................................241 lookbib....................................................................................................................................241 neqn .........................................................................................................................................242 nroff........................................................................................................................................242 pfbtops....................................................................................................................................242 pic ............................................................................................................................................242 psbb.........................................................................................................................................242 refer.........................................................................................................................................242 soelim......................................................................................................................................242 tbl............................................................................................................................................242 tfmtodit...................................................................................................................................243 . troff.........................................................................................................................................243 Man ...................................................................................................................................................................244 Contents...............................................................................................................................................244 Description...........................................................................................................................................244 man ..........................................................................................................................................244 apropos....................................................................................................................................244 whatis......................................................................................................................................244 makewhatis.............................................................................................................................244 Perl...................................................................................................................................................................245 Contents...............................................................................................................................................245 Description...........................................................................................................................................245 M4.....................................................................................................................................................................246 Contents...............................................................................................................................................246 Description...........................................................................................................................................246 Texinfo.............................................................................................................................................................247 Contents...............................................................................................................................................247 Description...........................................................................................................................................247 xxiii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents info..........................................................................................................................................247 install−info..............................................................................................................................247 makeinfo.................................................................................................................................247 texi2dvi...................................................................................................................................247 texindex ...................................................................................................................................247 Autoconf...........................................................................................................................................................248 Contents...............................................................................................................................................248 Description...........................................................................................................................................248 autoconf..................................................................................................................................248 autoheader...............................................................................................................................248 autoreconf...............................................................................................................................248 autoscan..................................................................................................................................248 autoupdate...............................................................................................................................248 ifnames....................................................................................................................................249 Automake.........................................................................................................................................................250 Contents...............................................................................................................................................250 Description...........................................................................................................................................250 aclocal.....................................................................................................................................250 automake.................................................................................................................................250 Bash..................................................................................................................................................................251 Contents...............................................................................................................................................251 Description...........................................................................................................................................251 Flex...................................................................................................................................................................252 Contents...............................................................................................................................................252 Description...........................................................................................................................................252 Binutils.............................................................................................................................................................253 Description...........................................................................................................................................253 Description...........................................................................................................................................253 ld.............................................................................................................................................253 as.............................................................................................................................................253 ar.............................................................................................................................................253 nm...........................................................................................................................................253 objcopy ....................................................................................................................................253 objdump..................................................................................................................................253 ranlib.......................................................................................................................................254 size..........................................................................................................................................254 strings......................................................................................................................................254 strip.........................................................................................................................................254 c++filt.....................................................................................................................................254 addr2line.................................................................................................................................254 nlmconv..................................................................................................................................255 xxiv Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Bzip2.................................................................................................................................................................256 Contents...............................................................................................................................................256 Description...........................................................................................................................................256 Bzip2.......................................................................................................................................256 Bunzip2...................................................................................................................................256 bzcat........................................................................................................................................256 bzip2recover...........................................................................................................................256 . Diffutils .............................................................................................................................................................257 Contents...............................................................................................................................................257 Description...........................................................................................................................................257 cmp and diff............................................................................................................................257 diff3 .........................................................................................................................................257 sdiff.........................................................................................................................................257 E2fsprogs.........................................................................................................................................................258 Contents...............................................................................................................................................258 Description...........................................................................................................................................258 chattr.......................................................................................................................................258 lsattr........................................................................................................................................258 uuidgen ....................................................................................................................................258 badblocks................................................................................................................................258 debugfs....................................................................................................................................258 dumpe2fs .................................................................................................................................258 e2fsck and fsck.ext2 ................................................................................................................259 e2label.....................................................................................................................................259 fsck..........................................................................................................................................259 mke2fs and mkfs.ext2.............................................................................................................259 mklost+found..........................................................................................................................259 tune2fs .....................................................................................................................................259 File....................................................................................................................................................................260 Contents...............................................................................................................................................260 Description...........................................................................................................................................260 Fileutils.............................................................................................................................................................261 Contents...............................................................................................................................................261 Description...........................................................................................................................................261 chgrp.......................................................................................................................................261 chmod ......................................................................................................................................261 chown......................................................................................................................................261 cp .............................................................................................................................................261 dd............................................................................................................................................261 df.............................................................................................................................................261 ls, dir and vdir.........................................................................................................................262 dircolors..................................................................................................................................262 du............................................................................................................................................262 xxv Linux From Scratch Table of Contents install ......................................................................................................................................262 . ln.............................................................................................................................................262 mkdir.......................................................................................................................................262 mkfifo ......................................................................................................................................262 mknod.....................................................................................................................................262 mv...........................................................................................................................................263 rm............................................................................................................................................263 rmdir.......................................................................................................................................263 . sync.........................................................................................................................................263 touch ........................................................................................................................................263 Gettext..............................................................................................................................................................264 Contents...............................................................................................................................................264 Description...........................................................................................................................................264 gettext.....................................................................................................................................264 . Grep ..................................................................................................................................................................265 Contents...............................................................................................................................................265 Description...........................................................................................................................................265 egrep ........................................................................................................................................265 fgrep........................................................................................................................................265 grep.........................................................................................................................................265 Gzip..................................................................................................................................................................266 Contents...............................................................................................................................................266 Description...........................................................................................................................................266 gunzip ......................................................................................................................................266 gzexe.......................................................................................................................................266 gzip ..........................................................................................................................................266 zcat..........................................................................................................................................266 zcmp........................................................................................................................................266 zdiff.........................................................................................................................................266 zforce......................................................................................................................................267 zgrep ........................................................................................................................................267 zmore......................................................................................................................................267 znew........................................................................................................................................267 Ld.so.................................................................................................................................................................268 Contents...............................................................................................................................................268 Description...........................................................................................................................................268 ldconfig...................................................................................................................................268 ldd...........................................................................................................................................268 Libtool..............................................................................................................................................................269 Contents...............................................................................................................................................269 Description...........................................................................................................................................269 libtool......................................................................................................................................269 xxvi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents libtoolize.................................................................................................................................269 ltdl library...............................................................................................................................269 Bin86 .................................................................................................................................................................270 Contents...............................................................................................................................................270 Description...........................................................................................................................................270 as86.........................................................................................................................................270 as86_encap..............................................................................................................................270 ld86.........................................................................................................................................270 objdump86..............................................................................................................................270 nm86.......................................................................................................................................270 size86......................................................................................................................................270 Lilo ....................................................................................................................................................................271 Contents...............................................................................................................................................271 Description...........................................................................................................................................271 Make.................................................................................................................................................................272 Contents...............................................................................................................................................272 Description...........................................................................................................................................272 Shellutils...........................................................................................................................................................273 Contents...............................................................................................................................................273 Description...........................................................................................................................................273 basename .................................................................................................................................273 chroot......................................................................................................................................273 date..........................................................................................................................................273 dirname...................................................................................................................................273 echo.........................................................................................................................................273 env ...........................................................................................................................................273 expr.........................................................................................................................................273 factor.......................................................................................................................................274 false.........................................................................................................................................274 groups ......................................................................................................................................274 hostid .......................................................................................................................................274 hostname.................................................................................................................................274 id.............................................................................................................................................274 logname ...................................................................................................................................274 nice..........................................................................................................................................274 nohup......................................................................................................................................274 pathchk....................................................................................................................................275 pinky.......................................................................................................................................275 printenv...................................................................................................................................275 printf.......................................................................................................................................275 . pwd ..........................................................................................................................................275 seq...........................................................................................................................................275 sleep........................................................................................................................................275 xxvii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents stty ...........................................................................................................................................275 su.............................................................................................................................................275 tee............................................................................................................................................276 test...........................................................................................................................................276 true..........................................................................................................................................276 tty............................................................................................................................................276 uname......................................................................................................................................276 uptime.....................................................................................................................................276 users........................................................................................................................................276 who ..........................................................................................................................................276 whoami...................................................................................................................................276 . yes...........................................................................................................................................277 Shadow Password Suite..................................................................................................................................278 Contents...............................................................................................................................................278 Description...........................................................................................................................................278 chage.......................................................................................................................................278 chfn.........................................................................................................................................278 chsh.........................................................................................................................................278 expiry......................................................................................................................................278 faillog......................................................................................................................................278 gpasswd ...................................................................................................................................278 lastlog......................................................................................................................................279 login........................................................................................................................................279 newgrp....................................................................................................................................279 passwd .....................................................................................................................................279 sg.............................................................................................................................................279 su.............................................................................................................................................279 chpasswd.................................................................................................................................279 dpasswd ...................................................................................................................................279 groupadd.................................................................................................................................280 groupdel..................................................................................................................................280 groupmod................................................................................................................................280 grpck.......................................................................................................................................280 grpconv...................................................................................................................................280 grpunconv...............................................................................................................................280 logoutd....................................................................................................................................280 mkpasswd ................................................................................................................................280 newusers ..................................................................................................................................281 pwck........................................................................................................................................281 pwconv....................................................................................................................................281 pwunconv................................................................................................................................281 useradd....................................................................................................................................281 userdel.....................................................................................................................................281 usermod ...................................................................................................................................281 vipw and vigr..........................................................................................................................281 xxviii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Modutils...........................................................................................................................................................282 Contents...............................................................................................................................................282 Description...........................................................................................................................................282 depmod ....................................................................................................................................282 genksyms................................................................................................................................282 insmod .....................................................................................................................................282 insmod_ksymoops_clean........................................................................................................282 kerneld....................................................................................................................................282 kernelversion ...........................................................................................................................282 ksyms......................................................................................................................................282 lsmod .......................................................................................................................................283 modinfo...................................................................................................................................283 modprobe................................................................................................................................283 rmmod.....................................................................................................................................283 Procinfo............................................................................................................................................................284 Contents...............................................................................................................................................284 Description...........................................................................................................................................284 Procps...............................................................................................................................................................285 Contents...............................................................................................................................................285 Description...........................................................................................................................................285 free..........................................................................................................................................285 kill...........................................................................................................................................285 oldps and ps............................................................................................................................285 skill.........................................................................................................................................285 . snice........................................................................................................................................285 sysctl.......................................................................................................................................285 tload........................................................................................................................................285 top...........................................................................................................................................286 uptime.....................................................................................................................................286 vmstat......................................................................................................................................286 w ..............................................................................................................................................286 watch.......................................................................................................................................286 Vim...................................................................................................................................................................287 Contents...............................................................................................................................................287 Description...........................................................................................................................................287 ctags........................................................................................................................................287 etags........................................................................................................................................287 ex .............................................................................................................................................287 gview .......................................................................................................................................287 gvim........................................................................................................................................287 rgview.....................................................................................................................................287 rgvim.......................................................................................................................................287 rview.......................................................................................................................................288 rvim.........................................................................................................................................288 xxix Linux From Scratch Table of Contents view .........................................................................................................................................288 vim..........................................................................................................................................288 vimtutor ...................................................................................................................................288 xxd..........................................................................................................................................288 Psmisc...............................................................................................................................................................289 Contents...............................................................................................................................................289 Description...........................................................................................................................................289 fuser........................................................................................................................................289 killall.......................................................................................................................................289 pstree.......................................................................................................................................289 Sed....................................................................................................................................................................290 Contents...............................................................................................................................................290 Description...........................................................................................................................................290 Sysklogd...........................................................................................................................................................291 Contents...............................................................................................................................................291 Description...........................................................................................................................................291 klogd.......................................................................................................................................291 syslogd....................................................................................................................................291 Sysvinit.............................................................................................................................................................292 Contents...............................................................................................................................................292 Description...........................................................................................................................................292 pidof........................................................................................................................................292 last...........................................................................................................................................292 lastb.........................................................................................................................................292 mesg........................................................................................................................................292 utmpdump...............................................................................................................................292 wall.........................................................................................................................................292 . halt..........................................................................................................................................293 init...........................................................................................................................................293 killall5.....................................................................................................................................293 poweroff..................................................................................................................................293 reboot......................................................................................................................................293 runlevel...................................................................................................................................293 shutdown.................................................................................................................................293 sulogin .....................................................................................................................................294 telinit.......................................................................................................................................294 Tar....................................................................................................................................................................295 Contents...............................................................................................................................................295 Description...........................................................................................................................................295 tar............................................................................................................................................295 rmt...........................................................................................................................................295 xxx Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Textutils...........................................................................................................................................................296 Contents...............................................................................................................................................296 Description...........................................................................................................................................296 cat............................................................................................................................................296 cksum......................................................................................................................................296 comm......................................................................................................................................296 csplit........................................................................................................................................296 cut...........................................................................................................................................296 . expand.....................................................................................................................................296 fmt...........................................................................................................................................296 fold..........................................................................................................................................297 head.........................................................................................................................................297 join..........................................................................................................................................297 md5sum ...................................................................................................................................297 nl.............................................................................................................................................297 od............................................................................................................................................297 paste........................................................................................................................................297 pr.............................................................................................................................................297 ptx...........................................................................................................................................298 sort..........................................................................................................................................298 split.........................................................................................................................................298 . sum..........................................................................................................................................298 tac............................................................................................................................................298 tail...........................................................................................................................................298 tr..............................................................................................................................................298 tsort.........................................................................................................................................298 unexpand.................................................................................................................................298 uniq.........................................................................................................................................299 wc............................................................................................................................................299 Util Linux.........................................................................................................................................................300 Contents...............................................................................................................................................300 Description...........................................................................................................................................300 arch ..........................................................................................................................................300 dmesg......................................................................................................................................300 kill...........................................................................................................................................300 more........................................................................................................................................300 mount......................................................................................................................................300 umount....................................................................................................................................300 agetty .......................................................................................................................................301 blockdev..................................................................................................................................301 cfdisk .......................................................................................................................................301 ctrlaltdel..................................................................................................................................301 elvtune .....................................................................................................................................301 fdisk........................................................................................................................................301 fsck.minix...............................................................................................................................301 hwclock...................................................................................................................................301 xxxi Linux From Scratch Table of Contents kbdrate....................................................................................................................................301 losetup.....................................................................................................................................302 mkfs........................................................................................................................................302 mkfs.bfs ...................................................................................................................................302 mkfs.minix..............................................................................................................................302 mkswap...................................................................................................................................302 sfdisk.......................................................................................................................................302 swapoff...................................................................................................................................302 . swapon....................................................................................................................................302 cal............................................................................................................................................302 chkdupexe...............................................................................................................................303 col...........................................................................................................................................303 . colcrt.......................................................................................................................................303 colrm.......................................................................................................................................303 column....................................................................................................................................303 cytune......................................................................................................................................303 ddate........................................................................................................................................303 fdformat..................................................................................................................................303 getopt......................................................................................................................................303 hexdump ..................................................................................................................................304 ipcrm.......................................................................................................................................304 ipcs..........................................................................................................................................304 logger......................................................................................................................................304 look.........................................................................................................................................304 mcookie ...................................................................................................................................304 namei ......................................................................................................................................304 . rename .....................................................................................................................................304 renice .......................................................................................................................................305 rev...........................................................................................................................................305 script.......................................................................................................................................305 . setfdprm..................................................................................................................................305 setsid.......................................................................................................................................305 setterm .....................................................................................................................................305 ul.............................................................................................................................................305 whereis....................................................................................................................................305 write........................................................................................................................................306 ramsize....................................................................................................................................306 rdev.........................................................................................................................................306 readprofile...............................................................................................................................306 rootflags..................................................................................................................................306 swapdev..................................................................................................................................306 tunelp......................................................................................................................................306 vidmode..................................................................................................................................306 Console−tools...................................................................................................................................................307 Contents...............................................................................................................................................307 Description...........................................................................................................................................307 xxxii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents charset.....................................................................................................................................307 chvt.........................................................................................................................................307 . codepage.................................................................................................................................307 consolechars............................................................................................................................307 deallocvt..................................................................................................................................307 dumpkeys................................................................................................................................307 fgconsole.................................................................................................................................308 fix_bs_and_del........................................................................................................................308 font2psf...................................................................................................................................308 getkeycodes .............................................................................................................................308 kbd_mode ................................................................................................................................308 loadkeys..................................................................................................................................308 loadunimap ..............................................................................................................................308 mapscrn...................................................................................................................................308 mk_modmap...........................................................................................................................308 openvt.....................................................................................................................................309 . psfaddtable..............................................................................................................................309 psfgettable...............................................................................................................................309 psfstriptable .............................................................................................................................309 resizecons................................................................................................................................309 saveunimap.............................................................................................................................309 screendump.............................................................................................................................309 setfont.....................................................................................................................................309 . setkeycodes.............................................................................................................................309 setleds ......................................................................................................................................310 setmetamode...........................................................................................................................310 setvesablank............................................................................................................................310 showcfont................................................................................................................................310 showkey..................................................................................................................................310 splitfont...................................................................................................................................310 unicode_start...........................................................................................................................310 unicode_stop...........................................................................................................................310 vcstime....................................................................................................................................310 vt−is−UTF8 .............................................................................................................................311 writevt.....................................................................................................................................311 Console−data...................................................................................................................................................312 Contents...............................................................................................................................................312 Man−pages.......................................................................................................................................................313 Contents...............................................................................................................................................313 Description...........................................................................................................................................313 Appendix B. Resources...................................................................................................................................314 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................315 xxxiii Linux From Scratch Table of Contents Books................................................................................................................................................................316 HOWTOs and Guides .....................................................................................................................................317 Other................................................................................................................................................................318 xxxiv Linux From Scratch Gerard Beekmans Copyright © 1999, 2000 by Gerard Beekmans This book describes the process of creating your own Linux system from scratch from an already installed Linux distribution, using nothing but the sources of software that are needed. This book may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the LDP License at http://www.linuxdoc.org/COPYRIGHT.html It is not necessary to display the license notice, as described in the LDP License, when only a small part of this book is quoted for informational or similar purposes. However, I do require you to display with the quotation(s) a line similar to the following line: "Quoted from the LFS−BOOK at http://www.linuxfromscratch.org" Linux From Scratch 1 Dedication This book is dedicated to my loving and supportive wife Beverly Beekmans. Table of Contents Preface Who would want to read this book Who would not want to read this book Organization Part I − Introduction Part II − Installation of the LFS system Part III − Appendixes I. Part I − Introduction 1. Introduction Introduction How things are going to be done Book versions Acknowledgements Changelog Mailinglists and archives Contact information 2. Important information About $LFS How to download the software Dedication 2 Linux From Scratch How to install the software II. Part II − Installing the LFS system 3. Packages you need to download 4. Preparing a new partition Introduction Creating a new partition Creating a ext2 file system on the new partition Mounting the new partition Creating directories 5. Preparing the LFS system How and why things are done Installing Bash Installing Binutils Installing Bzip2 Installing Diffutils Installing Fileutils Installing GCC on the normal system if necessary Installing GCC on the LFS system Installing Linux Kernel Installing Glibc Installing Grep Installing Gzip Installing Make Installing Sed Dedication 3 Linux From Scratch Installing Shellutils Installing Tar Installing Textutils Creating passwd and group files Copying /proc/devices 6. Installing basic system software Introduction Debugging symbols and compiler optimizations Creating $LFS/root/.bash_profile Entering the chroot'ed environment Creating device files Installing GCC Installing Bison Installing Mawk Installing Patch Installing Findutils Installing Ncurses Installing Less Installing Groff Installing Man Installing Perl Installing M4 Installing Texinfo Installing Autoconf Installing Automake Dedication 4 Linux From Scratch Installing Bash Installing Flex Installing File Installing Libtool Installing Bin86 Installing Binutils Installing Bzip2 Installing Gettext Installing Consoletools Installing Consoledata Installing Diffutils Installing E2fsprogs Installing Ed Installing Fileutils Installing Grep Installing Gzip Installing Ldso Installing Vim Installing Lilo Installing Make Installing Modutils Installing Procinfo Installing Procps Installing Psmisc Installing Sed Installing Shellutils Dedication 5 Linux From Scratch Installing Shadowpwd Installing Sysklogd Installing Sysvinit Installing Tar Installing Textutils Installing Utillinux Installing Man−pages Removing old NSS library files Configuring essential software 7. Creating system boot scripts What is being done here Creating directories Creating the rc script Creating the rcS script Creating the functions script Creating the checkfs script Creating the halt script Creating the loadkeys script Creating the mountfs script Creating the reboot script Creating the sendsignals script Creating the setclock script Creating the sysklogd script Creating the umountfs script Setting up symlinks and permissions Dedication 6 Linux From Scratch Creating the /etc/fstab file 8. Setting up basic networking Introduction Installing network software Creating network boot scripts 9. Making the LFS system bootable Introduction Installing a kernel Adding an entry to LILO Testing the system III. Part III − Appendixes A. Package descriptions Introduction Glibc Linux kernel Ed Patch GCC Bison Mawk Findutils Ncurses Less Groff Dedication 7 Linux From Scratch Man Perl M4 Texinfo Autoconf Automake Bash Flex Binutils Bzip2 Diffutils E2fsprogs File Fileutils Gettext Grep Gzip Ld.so Libtool Bin86 Lilo Make Shellutils Shadow Password Suite Modutils Procinfo Dedication 8 Linux From Scratch Procps Vim Psmisc Sed Sysklogd Sysvinit Tar Textutils Util Linux Console−tools Console−data Man−pages B. Resources Introduction Books HOWTOs and Guides Other Dedication 9 Preface Preface 10 Who would want to read this book This book is intended for Linux users who want to learn more about the inner workings of Linux and how the various pieces of the Operating System fit together. This book will guide you step−by−step in creating your own custom build Linux system from scratch, using nothing but the sources of software that are needed. This book is also intended for Linux users who want to get away from the existing commercial and free distributions that are often too bloated. Using existing distributions also forces you to use the file system structure, boot script structure, etc. that they choose to use. With this book you can create your own structures and methods in exactly the way you like them (which can be based on the ones this book provides) Also, if you have security concerns, you don't want to rely on pre−compiled packages. So instead, you want to compile all programs from scratch and install them yourself. That could be another reason why you would want to build a custom made Linux system. Those are just a few out of many reasons why people want to build their own Linux system. If you're one of those people, this book is meant for you. Who would want to read this book 11 Who would not want to read this book Users who don't want to build an entire Linux system from scratch probably don't want to read this book. If you, however, do want to learn more about what happens behind the scenes, in particular what happens between turning on your computer and seeing the command prompt, you want to read the "From Power Up To Bash Prompt" (P2B) HOWTO. This HOWTO builds a bare system, in a similar way as this book does, but it focusses more on just installing a bootable system instead of a complete system. To decide whether you want to read this book or the P2B HOWTO, you could ask yourself this question: Is my main objective to get a working Linux system that I'm going to build myself and along the way learn and learn what every component of a system is for, or is just the learning part your main objective. If you want to build and learn, read this book. If you just want to learn, then the P2B HOWTO is probably better material to read. The "From Power Up To Bash Prompt" HOWTO can be downloaded from http://learning.taslug.org.au/power2bash Who would not want to read this book 12 Organization This book is devided into the following parts. Although there is a lot of duplicate information in certain parts, it's the easiest way to read it and not to mention the easiest way for me to maintain the book. Part I − Introduction Part One gives you general information about this book (versions, where to get it, changelog, mailinglists and how to get in touch with me). It also explains a few important aspects you really want and need to read before you start building an LFS system. Part II − Installation of the LFS system Part Two guides you through the installation of the LFS system which will be the foundation for the rest of the system. Whatever you choose to do with your brand new LFS system, it will be built on the foundation that's installed in this part. Part III − Appendixes Part Three contains various Appendixes. Organization 13 I. Part I − Introduction Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Important information I. Part I − Introduction 14 Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 1. Introduction 15 Introduction Having used a number of different Linux distributions, I was never fully satisfied with any of those. I didn't like the way the bootscripts were arranged, or I didn't like the way certain programs were configured by default and more of those things. I came to realize that when I want to be totally satisfied with a Linux system, I have to build my own Linux system from scratch, ideally only using the source code. Not using pre−compiled packages of any kind. No help from some sort of cdrom or bootdisk that would install some basic utilities. You would use your current Linux system and use that one to build your own. This, at one time, wild idea seemed very difficult and at times almost impossible. The reason for most problems were due to my lack of knowledge about certain programs and procedures. After sorting out all kinds of dependency problems, compilation problems, etcetera, a custom built Linux system was created and fully operational. I called this system an LFS system, which stands for LinuxFromScratch. Introduction 16 How things are going to be done We are going to build the LFS system using an already installed Linux distribution such as Debian, SuSe, Slackware, Mandrake, RedHat, etc. You don't need to have any kind of bootdisk. We will use an existing Linux system as the base (since we need a compiler, linker, text editor and other tools). If you don't have Linux installed yet, you won't be able to put this book to use right away. I suggest you first install a Linux distribution. It really doesn't matter which one you install. It also doesn't need to be the latest version, though it shouldn't be a too old one. If it is about a year old or newer it should do just fine. You will safe yourself a lot of trouble if your normal system uses glibc−2.0 or newer. Libc5 isn't supported by this book, though it isn't impossible to use a libc5 system if you have no choice. How things are going to be done 17 Book versions This is the 2.4 stable version dated August 28th, 2000. If this version is older than a month you definitely want to take a look at our website and download a newer version. • • • • • Columbus, Ohio, United States − http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/index2.html United States − http://lfs.sourceforge.net/index2.html Braunschweig, Niedersachsen, Germany − http://134.169.139.209/index2.html Brisbane, Queensland, Australia − http://lfs.mirror.aarnet.edu.au/index2.html France − http://www.linuxien.com/lfs/index2.html Book versions 18 Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people and organizations for their contributions towards the LinuxFromScratch project: • • • • • • • • • • Paul Jensen for providing http://www.pcrdallas.com as the main linuxfromscratch.org host Bryan Dumm for providing http://www.bcpub.com as the lfs.bcpub.com mirror Jan Niemann for providing http://helga.lk.etc.tu−bs.de as the 134.169.139.209 mirror Jason Andrade for providing http://mirror.aarnet.edu.au as the lfs.mirror.aarnet.edu.au mirror Johan Lenglet for providing http://www.linuxien.com/ as the www.linuxien.com/lfs/ mirror Michael Peters for contributing the Apple PowerPC modifications VA Linux Systems who, on behalf of Linux.com, donated a VA Linux 420 (formerly StartX SP2) workstation towards this project Jesse Tie Ten Quee who donated a Yamaha CDRW 8824E CD−RW. O'Reilly who donated books on SQL and PHP. Countless other people from the various LFS mailinglists who are making this book happen by making suggestions, testing and submitting bug reports. Acknowledgements 19 Changelog If, for example, a change is listed for chapter 5 it (usually) means the same change has been done in the chapters for the other architectures. 2.4 − August 28th, 2000 • • • • • Split the book up into two differnet books for Intel and PPC. Chapter 4: Added the mail and dev/pts directories to the "Creating directories" section. Chapter 5: Everything from chroot and after has been put in a new chapter. Chapter 6: Moved the optimization part to the point just before you enter the chroot'ed environment. It's a waste to use compiler optimizations for the static packages since they will be replaced anyways. Chapter 6: To enter chroot we first cd to the $LFS/root directory. Some older chroot programs have problems when you enter chroot when your starting directory isn't inside the chroot environment. Also we don't execute bash directly in the chroot'ed environment, but we start the "env" program so we can enter with a clean environment that only has CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS set. Chapter 6: A few people have had problems compiling M4 in the chroot'ed enviroment. Instructions are provided how to install this package statically for the affected users. Chapter 6: We can't move the 'mv' program during the dynamic installation of the fileutils package with the mv program. So we copy it to /bin first, then remove the /usr/bin/mv one. Chapter 5: Added 'make localedata/install−locales' to the Glibc installation. This installs the locale files that various applications use (most notable GDK applications) if you have an NLS capable system (which LFS is, but with missing locales it's almost useless) Chapter 6: Moved vim's installation before Lilo since you might want to edit Lilo's Makefile file to add compiler optimization. Chapter 6: Moved the installatin of shadow password suit after sh−utils. Else sh−utils replaces the "su" version from shadow password with it's own version which shouldn't happen. Chapter 6: Changed the way we enter the chroot'ed environment. We use the "env" to create an empty enviroment so that enviroment variables from the normal Linux system won't interfer in the chroot enviroment. The only variable set when entering the chroot'ed environment is the HOME variable. Chapter 6: Because of the new way we enter chroot, the $LFS/root/.bash_profile file has been created that sets a few variables like TERM, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and whatever you deem necesarry. 2.3.7 − August 3rd, 2000 • • • • • • • Changelog 20 Linux From Scratch • All chapters: Removed the <blockquote> SGML tags so that the contents of files isn't indented anymore. This improves the easy of copy and pasting from the book into your files without needing to manually reformat the files to get rid of the indentations. • Chapter 4: Added var/tmp to the "chmod 1777 tmp usr/tmp" command. • Chapter 4: Made mkdir commands less repetitive by putting the creation of the directories in $LFS/usr and $LFS/usr/local in a for−loop. • Chapter 5: Moved the chmod 754 command for MAKEDEV after the sed operation. • Chapter 5: Changed the order in which packages are installed to conform more to a alphabetically ordering. • Chapter 5: After console−tools has been installed the /usr/share/defkeymap.kmap.gz file is created which will be used by the loadkeys script. • Chapter 5: Removed "gcc −c watch.c" from "Installing Procps". Please let us know if this is still needed on certain hardware. • Chapter 5: Added the /usr/bin/install symbolic link as it seems that at least one package (sysklogd) has the install location hard coded in it's Makefile file. • Chapter 5: After gettext has been installed, we have a file /po−mode.el. This file will be moved to /usr/share/gettext where it probably belongs. • Chapter 5: Instead of passing −−with−root−prefix=/ to e2fsprogs' configure script, we now pass −−with−root−prefix= • Chapter 5: When gzip is installed and the files moved to /bin the hard link between the files is removed. So we just move gzip to /bin and create a symlink between gzip and gunzip. • Chapter 5: In the chroot environment: changed the installation order of a few packages who's dependencies have changed over time. • Chapter 5: inittab file has been slightly updated to better support the single user run level. When you change to run level S, s or 1 it will do it's job properly now. • Chapter 6: Fixed typo in the rc script (! −f sysinit_start −> ! −f $sysinit_start). • Chapter 6: Changed the loadkeys command in the loadkeys script. New command is: loadkeys −d which loads the /usr/share/keymaps/defkeymap.kmap.gz file. • Chapter 6: Changed ". /etc/init.d/functions" into "source /etc/init.d/functions". • Chapter 6: Removed the "rm /fastboot" command from the checkfs script. 2.3.6 − July 19th, 2000 • Changelog 21 Linux From Scratch Chapter 3: Re−ordered the software download list so it once again matches the order in which packages are used (the first package listed in the list is the first package that we will be using in the book, the second listed package will be the second package used in the book, etc). Chapter 3: Added the file sizes of the packages you have to download. Chapter 3: Removed the start−stop−daemon package. Chapter 3: Added the findutils and glibc patches to the package list. Chapter 3: Added the man−pages package to the package list. Chapter 4: Moved the creation of the $LFS/dev/ files to chapter 5 after we have entered the chroot environment. This is done because GID's on normal system and LFS system might differ and the MAKEDEV script depends on the GID's. Chapter 5: Added the installation of the man−pages package. Chapter 5: Added a few commonly used groups to the /etc/group file when it is created (these are the groups needed by the MAKEDEV script). Chapter 5: The /proc/devices file is copied to $LFS/proc for the benefit of the MAKEDEV script. The presence of this file ensures the proper creation of the device files. Chapter 5: Layout changes. Every package installation has it's own page now. Also the text from appendixa for every package is included with the installation instructions so you can read what a package is about during (or after or before) the installation of it. Chapter 5: Removed the patches for diffutils, grep, gzip and sed that used to fix static link problems. The problems can be fixed by passing compile arguments to the C pre−processor (cpp) instead. Chapter 5: Added the −−disable−termcap option to configure to disable termcap backward compatibility (if you want to know why termcap isn't used anymore, please read the INSTALL file that comes with the Ncurses package). Chapter 5: Added a few missing files from the fileutils package to the "mv" commands. Chapter 5: Removed the installation of the start−stop−daemon package. Chapter 5: Removed the −e parameters from the make command lines. Chapter 5: Instead of editing the procinfo, procps and psmisc Makefile files with a text editor, the sed command it used. Chapter 6: Added the setclock script in case your hardware clock isn't set to GMT. Chapter 6: Removed the use of the start−stop−daemon program and replaced them with custom functions that use programs like pidof and kill to accomplish the same tasks but with more control over what happens. Chapter 6: Added the loadproc and killproc functions to the /etc/init.d/functions file that take over the Changelog 22 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Linux From Scratch functions the start−stop−daemon program used to perform. Chapter 6: When the checkfs script runs without errors it now prints a green OK. Chapter 6: When /fastboot or /forcefsck exist, they won't be deleted from within the checkfs script but from within the mountfs script as soon as the root partition has been remounted in read−write mode. Chapter 6 & 7: Instead of sourcing a file with ". /etc/init.d/functions", "source /etc/init.d/functions" is now used. This makes it easier to read and is clearer for persons who don't know much about scripting. Appendix A: removed start−stop−daemon. Appendix B: Removed a few unrelated items from the book and howto sections (the references to Sendmail and ISP−Hookup−HOWTO). 2.3.5 − June 19th, 2000 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chapter 3: Updated LILO download location Chapter 3: Updated Shadow Password Suite download location Chapter 3: Updated the Flex download location Chapter 3: Updated the File download location Chapter 3: Added netkit−base and net−tools to the mandatory packages section Chapter 5: A glibc−2.1.3 patch is available if you have problems compiling glibc on a bash−2.04 machine. Chapter 5: Added compiler optimization Chapter 5: Added the creation of the root password to "Configuring essential software" Chapter 5: The Linux86 package has been replaced by the Bin86 package. Chapter 5: Included information on how to optimize compilations. Chapter 5: Moved installation of Groff and Man before Perl. This way Perl known how to install man pages and where to install them. Chapter 5: Changed GCC's local−prefix option to /usr/local instead of /usr (this was still a residue from the time where /usr/local was a symbolic link to /usr) Chaper 5: Fixed the commands when a patch is used and the patch filename contained the .gz suffix. Chapter 5: Added −−disable−nls to every configure command in the "Perparing the LFS Changelog 23 • • • • • Linux From Scratch system..." section which didn't have it yet. Chapter 5: Added the installation of bash−2.03 so you have a shell that can be used to compile packages that violate POSIX standards regarding valid characters in variable names Chapter 5: Added the installation of console−tools and console−data for people who have non−US keyboards Chapter 5: Moved the ed program to the /bin directory conforming the FHS standard Chapter 6 & 7: Implemented LSB recommended run level scheme. Chapter 6 & 7: Implemented "fancy bootscripts". When something fails in a bootscript it still says FAILED but the text red. When something succeeded it still will print OK but the text is green. Chater 6: Added the loadkeys scripts for people with non−US keyboards Chapter 6: Added the /etc/sysconfig directory to "Creating directories" Chapter 6: Renamed the checkroot boot script into checkfs. The script also checks other file systems now. Chapter 6: Updated the mountfs boot script to mount all file systems that are mentioned in the /etc/fstab file and don't have the noauto option set. Chapter 6: After checkfs evaluated the existence of /fastboot or /forcecheck it will remove those files. Chapter 6 & 7: Changed the mode of the boot scripts from 755 to 754 Chapter 7: Moved system specific information for hostname and ethernet configuration to the /etc/sysconfig/network file Chapter 7: Removed the default gateway command Chapter 7: Fixed the typo in the ethnet script (NETMAKSK −> NETMASK) Chapter 7: A net−tools patch is available to fix a minor bug in the package (illegal variable names that bash−2.04 will complain about) 2.3.4 − June 5th, 2000 • • Chapter 5: Fixed the kernel header files configuration Chapter 5: Fixed the lilo configuration 2.3.3 − May 15th, 2000 • Changelog 24 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Linux From Scratch Changed the default mount point from /mnt/xxx to /mnt/lfs (where xxx used to be the partition's designation like hda5, sda5 and others). The reason for the change is to make cross−platform instructions easier. Chapter 4: Changed the default modes for the $LFS/root and $LFS/tmp directory to respectively 0750 and 1777. Chapter 5: Removed the encoded password from the passwd file. Instead a file with no set password is created. The root password can be set by the user when the system is rebooted into the LFS system (after chapter 8). Chapter 5: Fixed the procps compile command for watch.c. It should compile properly now. Chapter 5: Fixed gzip patch installation (used the wrong filename in the patch command Chapter 5: Changed 'entering the chroot'ed environment' to make bash a login shell. Chapter 5: Configuring the kernel has been moved to this chapter because it needs to be done before programs like e2fsprogs and lilo are compiled. Chapter 6: Fixed the rc script. It now checks to see if the previous run level starts a service before attempting to stop it in the new run level. Also, if a service is already started in the previous run level it won't attempt to start the service in the new run level again. Thanks to Jason Pearce for providing this fixed script. Chapter 7: Fixed the ethnet script − removed paratheses from the environment variables and removed the command to add a route. The ifconfig command used to bring the eth device up already sets this route. 2.3.2 − April 18th, 2000 • • • • • • • Chapter 4.7: Change only the owner of the $LFS/dev/* files Fixed a large amount of typo's that occured during the transistion from the LinuxDoc DTD (2.2 and lower) to the DocBook DTD (2.3.1 and higher). Moved chapters around quite a bit and applied a new structure in the book. Installations for Intel, Apple PowerPC and future systems will be put in their own dedicated part of the book. After the system is prepared to install the basic system software, we no longer reboot the system but instead we setup a chroot'ed environment. This will have the same effect without having to reboot. Apple PowerPC has it's own dedicated chapters now. This should increase readability a lot All optional chapters have been removed. LFS follows a "we provide the foundation, it's up to you to build the rest of the house" philosophy. Replaced the fixed packages by patch files. This way you can see what needs to be changed in a package in order to get it to compile properly. Changelog 25 • • • • • • • • Linux From Scratch 2.3.1 − April 12th, 2000 • • • • • • • • Chapter 4.4: Added the $LFS/usr/info symlink which points to $LFS/usr/share/info Chapter 7.3.1: Added a second variation to a 'swap−line' in a fstab file. Chapter 7.3.2: Removed $LFS from the commands. Chapter 7.4.43: Added the vi symlink Chapter 9.2.5: Improved ethnet script to include routing information Chapter 10.1.2: Fixed missing subdirectory 'mqueue' in mkdir /var/spool −> /mkdir /var/spool/mqueue Chapter 10.1.4: Updated the sendmail configuration file with a few necessary options Chapter 10.1.7: Fixed wrong directory path /etc/init.d/rc2.d −> /etc/rc2.d Changelog 26 Mailinglists and archives The linuxfromscratch.org server is hosting the following public accessible mailinglists: • • • • • • lfs−discuss lfs−config lfs−apps lfs−announce linux alfs−discuss lfs−discuss The lfs−discuss mailinglist discusses matters strictly related to the LFS−BOOK. If you have problems with the book, want to report a bug or two or have suggestions to improve the book, use this mailinglist. Compilation problems, questions how to configure a piece of software and such are to be posted to the lfs−config or lfs−apps mailinglist. To find out what kind of questions go to which of the two lists you can read in the descriptions for those two lists. lfs−config The lfs−config list discusses problems with compiling, installing and configuring software that is used in the LFS−BOOK. Problems with compiling, installing or configuring programs that didn't give problems on a non−LFS system are discussed on the lfs−apps list. If your problem doesn't fit on the lfs−config or lfs−apps mailinglist, please use the linux mailinglist. lfs−apps The lfs−apps list discussed the compilation and configuration of software that's not used in this book. The list is mainly used when you have problems installing software on an LFS system when you don't have problems compiling it on your normal distribution. It's not that LFS is incompatible with "normal" distributions but just the fact that you might be missing support−software that programs need or need to configure a few things on Mailinglists and archives 27 Linux From Scratch your new LFS system. If you had problems with software on non−LFS systems as well, please use the linux mailinglist for help. lfs−announce The lfs−announce list is a moderated list. You can subscribe to it, but you can't post any messages to this list. This list is used to announce new stable releases. If you want to be informed about development releases as well then you'll have to join the lfs−discuss list. If you're already on the lfs−discuss list there's little use subscribing to this list as well because everything that is posted to the lfs−announce list will be posted to the lfs−discuss list as well. linux The linux list is a general Linux discussion list that handles everything that has got anything to do with Linux in any way, shape and form. Ocasionally we discuss the price of beer as well. alfs−discuss The alfs−discuss discusses the development of ALFS which stands for Automated LinuxFromScratch. The goal of this project is to develop an installation tool that can install an LFS system automatically for you. It's main goal is to speed up compilation by taking away your need to manually enter the commands to configure, compile and install packages. How to subscribe? You can subscribe to any of the above mentioned mailinglists by sending an email to [email protected]nuxfromscratch.org and write subscribe listname in the body of the message, where listname is replaced by either lfs−discuss, lfs−config, lfs−apps, lfs−announce, linux or alfs−discuss. No subject required. You can, if you want, subscribe to multiple lists at the same time using one email. Just repeat the subscribe command for each of the lists you want to subscribe to. After you have sent the email, the Majordomo program will send you an email back requesting a confirmation of your subscription request. After you have sent back this confirmation email, Majordomo will send you an email again with the message that you have been subscribed to the list(s) along with an introduction message for that particulair list. lfs−announce 28 Linux From Scratch How to unsubscribe? To unsubscribe from a list, send an email to [email protected] and write unsubscribe listname in the body of the message, where listname is replaced by either lfs−discuss, lfs−config, lfs−apps, lfs−announce, linux or alfs−discuss. You can, if you want, unsubscribe from multiple lists at the same time using one email. Just repeat the unsubscribe command for each of the lists you want to unsubscribe from. Mail archives The lfs−discuss, lfs−config, lfs−apps and linux mailing lists have an archive you can access to find information on subjects already posted to this list. You can find them at http://www.pcrdallas.com/mail−archives How to unsubscribe? 29 Contact information Direct all your emails to the lfs−discuss mailinglist preferably. If you need to reach Gerard Beekmans personally, send an email to [email protected] If you need to reach Michael Peters, Apple PPC maintainer of this book, personally, send an email to [email protected] Contact information 30 Chapter 2. Important information Chapter 2. Important information 31 About $LFS Please read the following carefully: throughout this document you will frequently see the variable name $LFS. $LFS must at all times be replaced by the directory where the partition that contains the LFS system is mounted. How to create and where to mount the partition will be explained later on in full detail in chapter 4. In my case the LFS partition is mounted on /mnt/lfs. If I read this document myself and I see $LFS somewhere, I will pretend that I read /mnt/lfs. If I read that I have to run this command: cp inittab $LFS/etc I actually will run this: cp inittab /mnt/lfs/etc It's important that you do this no matter where you read it; be it in commands you enter on the prompt, or in some file you edit or create. If you want, you can set the environment variable LFS. This way you can literally enter $LFS instead of replacing it by something like /mnt/lfs. This is accomplished by running: export LFS=/mnt/lfs If I read cp inittab $LFS/etc, I literally can type cp inittab $LFS/etc and the shell will replace this command by cp inittab /mnt/lfs/etc automatically. Do not forget to set the $LFS variable at all times. If you haven't set the variable and you use it in a command, $LFS will be ignored and whatever is left will be executed. The command cp inittab $LFS/etc without the LFS variable set, will result in copying the inittab file to the /etc directory which will overwrite your system's inittab. A file like inittab isn't that big a problem as it can easily be restored, but if you would make this mistake during the installation of the C Library, you can break your system badly and might have to reinstall it if you don't know how to repair it. About $LFS 32 How to download the software Throughout this document I will assume that you have stored all the packages you have downloaded somewhere in $LFS/usr/src. I use the convention of having a $LFS/usr/src/sources directory. Under sources you'll find the directory 0−9 and the directories a through z. A package as sysvinit−2.78.tar.gz is stored under $LFS/usr/src/sources/s/ A package as bash−2.04.tar.gz is stored under $LFS/usr/src/sources/b/ and so forth. You don't have to follow this convention of course, I was just giving an example. It's better to keep the packages out of $LFS/usr/src and move them to a subdirectory, so we'll have a clean $LFS/usr/src directory in which we will unpack the packages and work with them. The next chapter contains the list of all the packages you need to download, but the partition that is going to contain our LFS system isn't created yet. Therefore store the files temporarily somewhere where you want and remember to copy them to $LFS/usr/src/ when you have finished the chapter in which you prepare a new partition (which chapter exactly depends on your architecture). How to download the software 33 How to install the software Before you can actually start doing something with a package, you need to unpack it first. Often you will find the package files being tar'ed and gzip'ed (you can see this from a .tar.gz or .tgz extension). I'm not going to write down every time how to ungzip and how to untar an archive. I will tell you how to do that once, in this paragraph. There is also the possibility that you have the ability of downloading a .tar.bz2 file. Such a file is tar'ed and compressed with the bzip2 program. Bzip2 achieves a better compression than the commonly used gzip does. In order to use bz2 archives you need to have the bzip2 program installed. Most if not every distribution comes with this program so chances are high it is already installed on your system. If not, install it using your distribution's installation tool. To start with, change to the $LFS/usr/src directory by running: root:~# cd $LFS/usr/src When you have a file that is tar'ed and gzip'ed, you unpack it by running either one of the following two commands, depending on the filename format: root:/usr/src# tar xvfz filename.tar.gz root:/usr/src# tar xvfz filename.tgz When you have a file that is tar'ed and bzip'ed, you unpack it by running: root:/usr/src# bzcat filename.tar.bz2 | tar xv Some tar programs (most of them nowadays but not all of them) are slightly modified to be able to use bzip2 files directly using either the I or the y tar parameter which works the same as the z tar parameter to handle gzip archives. When you have a file that is tar'ed, you unpack it by running: root:/usr/src# tar xvf filename.tar When the archive is unpacked a new directory will be created under the current directory (and this document assumes that you unpack the archives under the $LFS/usr/src directory). You have to enter that new directory before you continue with the installation instructions. So everytime the book is going to install a program, it's up to you to unpack the source archive. How to install the software 34 Linux From Scratch After you have installed a package you can do two things with it. You can either delete the directory that contains the sources or you can keep it. If you decide to keep it, that's fine by me. But if you need the same package again in a later chapter you need to delete the directory first before using it again. If you don't do this, you might end up in trouble because old settings will be used (settings that apply to your normal Linux system but which don't always apply to your LFS system). Doing a simple make clean does not always guarantee a totally clean source tree. The configure script can also have files lying around in various subdirectories which aren't always removed by a make clean process. How to install the software 35 II. Part II − Installing the LFS system Table of Contents 3. Packages you need to download 4. Preparing a new partition 5. Preparing the LFS system 6. Installing basic system software 7. Creating system boot scripts 8. Setting up basic networking 9. Making the LFS system bootable II. Part II − Installing the LFS system 36 Chapter 3. Packages you need to download Below is a list of all the packages you need to download for building the basic system. The version numbers printed correspond to versions of the software that is known to work and which this book is based on. If you experience problems which you can't solve yourself, download the version that is assumed in this book (in case you download a newer version). The listed file sizes refer to the sizes of the .tar.gz archives. Sometimes you can find .tar.bz2 archives, but as .tar.gz is still the most widely used format, that size is listed. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bash (2.04) − 1,668 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/ Binutils (2.10) 7,041 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/binutils/ Bzip2 (1.0.1) 460 KB: http://sourceware.cygnus.com/bzip2/ Diff Utils (2.7) 304 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/diffutils/ File Utils (4.0) 1,143 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/fileutils/ GCC (2.95.2) 12,583 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/ Linux Kernel (2.2.16) 16,705 KB: ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/ Glibc (2.1.3) 8,802 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/ Glibc−crypt (2.1.3) 39 KB: ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/glibc/ Glibc−linuxthreads (2.1.3) 149 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/ Glibc Patch (2.1.3) − 1 KB: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/download/glibc−2.1.3.patch.gz Grep (2.4.2) 449 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/grep/ Gzip (1.2.4a) 215 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/ Make (3.79.1) 1,006 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/ Sed (3.02) 258 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/sed/ Shell Utils (2.0) 1,214 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/sh−utils/ Tar (1.13) 1,027 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/tar/ Text Utils (2.0) 1,496 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/textutils/ MAKEDEV (2.5) − 11 KB: ftp://ftp.ihg.uni−duisburg.de/Linux/system Chapter 3. Packages you need to download 37 Linux From Scratch Bison (1.28) 410 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bison/ Mawk (1.3.3) 205 KB: ftp://ftp.whidbey.net/pub/brennan/ Patch (2.5.4) 182 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/patch/ Find Utils (4.1) 287 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/findutils/ Find Utils Patch (4.1) 1 KB: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/download/findutils−4.1.patch.gz Ncurses (5.1) 1,671 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/ncurses/ Less (358) 225 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/less/ Groff (1.16) 1,393 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/ Man (1.5h1) 174 KB: ftp://ftp.win.tue.nl/pub/linux−local/utils/man/ Perl (5.6.0) 5,316 KB: http://www.perl.com M4 (1.4) 310 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/m4/ Texinfo (4.0) 1,106 kB ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/texinfo/ Autoconf (2.13) 433 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/ Automake (1.4) 344 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/automake/ Flex (2.5.4a) 372 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/non−gnu/flex/ File (3.31) 135 KB: ftp://ftp.gw.com/mirrors/pub/unix/file/ Libtool (1.3.5) 526 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libtool/ Bin86 (0.15.1) 138 KB: http://www.cix.co.uk/~mayday/ Gettext (0.10.35) 696 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext/ Console−tools (0.2.3) 652 KB: ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/keyboards/ Console−tools (0.2.3) Patch: 4 KB: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/download/console−tools−0.2.3.patch.gz Console−data (1999.08.29) 534 KB: ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/keyboards/ E2fsprogs (1.19) 935 KB: http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net Ed (0.2) 181 KB: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/ed/ Ld.so (1.9.9) 346 KB: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/download/ld.so−1.9.9.tar.gz • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chapter 3. Packages you need to download 38 Linux From Scratch Lilo (21.5) 209 KB: ftp://brun.dyndns.org/pub/linux/lilo/ Modutils (2.3.13) 197 KB: ftp://ftp.ocs.com.au/pub/modutils/ Vim−rt (5.7) 1,073 KB: ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/editors/vim/unix/ Vim−src (5.7) 1,202 KB: ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/editors/vim/unix/ Procinfo (17) 22 KB: ftp://ftp.cistron.nl/pub/people/svm/ Procps (2.0.7) 191 KB: ftp://people.redhat.com/johnsonm/procps/ Psmisc (19) 21 KB: ftp://lrcftp.epfl.ch/pub/linux/local/psmisc/ Shadow Password Suite (19990827) 706 KB: ftp://ftp.ists.pwr.wroc.pl/pub/linux/shadow/ Sysklogd (1.3.31) 93 KB: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/daemons/ Sysvinit (2.78) 106 KB: ftp://ftp.cistron.nl/pub/people/miquels/sysvinit/ Util Linux (2.10m) 1,178 KB: ftp://ftp.win.tue.nl/pub/linux/utils/util−linux/ Man−pages (1.30) 651 KB: ftp://ftp.win.tue.nl/pub/linux/docs/manpages/ Netkit−base (0.17) 55 KB: ftp://ftp.uk.linux.org/pub/linux/Networking/netkit/ Net−tools (1.57) 254 KB: http://www.tazenda.demon.co.uk/phil/net−tools/ Total size of all packages: 77,105 KB (75.30 MB) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chapter 3. Packages you need to download 39 Chapter 4. Preparing a new partition Chapter 4. Preparing a new partition 40 Introduction In this chapter the partition that is going to host the LFS system is going to be prepared. A new partition will be created, an ext2 file system will be created on it and the directory structure will be created. When this is done, we can move on to the next chapter and start building a new Linux system from scratch. Introduction 41 Creating a new partition Before we can build our new Linux system, we need to have an empty Linux partition on which we can build our new system. I recommend a partition size of around 750 MB. This gives you enough space to store all the tarballs and to compile all packages without worrying running out of the necessary temporary disk space. If you already have a Linux Native partition available, you can skip this subsection. Start the fdisk program (or some other fdisk program you prefer) with the appropriate hard disk as the option (like /dev/hda if you want to create a new partition on the primary master IDE disk). Create a Linux Native partition, write the partition table and exit the fdisk program. If you get the message that you need to reboot your system to ensure that that partition table is updated, then please reboot your system now before continuing. Remember what your new partition's designation is. It could be something like hda11 (as it is in my case). This newly created partition will be referred to as the LFS partition in this book. Creating a new partition 42 Creating a ext2 file system on the new partition Once the partition is created, we have to create a new ext2 file system on that partition. To create a new ext2 file system we use the mke2fs command. Enter the new partition as the only option and the file system will be created. If your partition is hda11, you would run: root:~# mke2fs /dev/hda11 Creating a ext2 file system on the new partition 43 Mounting the new partition Now that we have created the ext2 file system, it is ready for use. All we have to do to be able to access it (as in reading from and writing date to it) is mounting it. If you mount it under /mnt/lfs, you can access this partition by going to the /mnt/lfs directory and then do whatever you need to do. This document will assume that you have mounted the partition on a subdirectory under /mnt. It doesn't matter which directory you choose (or you can use just the /mnt directory as the mount point) but this book will assume /mnt/lfs in the commands it tells you to execute. Create the /mnt/lfs directory by runnning: root:~# mkdir −p /mnt/lfs Now mount the LFS partition by running: root:~# mount /dev/xxx /mnt/lfs Replace "xxx" by your partition's designation. This directory (/mnt/lfs) is the $LFS variable you have read about earlier. So if you read somewhere to "cp inittab $LFS/etc" you actually will type "cp inittab /mnt/lfs/etc". Or if you want to use the $LFS environment variable, execute export LFS=/mnt/lfs now. Mounting the new partition 44 Creating directories Let's create the directory tree on the LFS partition according to the FHS standard which can be found at http://www.pathname.com/fhs/. Issuing the following commands will create the necessary directories: root:~# cd $LFS root:~# mkdir bin boot dev dev/pts etc home lib mnt proc root sbin tmp var root:~# for dirname in $LFS/usr $LFS/usr/local > do > mkdir $dirname > cd $dirname > mkdir bin etc include lib sbin share src tmp var > ln −s share/man man > ln −s share/doc doc > ln −s share/info info > cd $dirname/share > mkdir dict doc info locale man nls misc terminfo zoneinfo > cd $dirname/share/man > mkdir man1 man2 man3 man4 man5 man6 man7 man8 > done root:~# cd $LFS/var root:var# mkdir lock log mail run spool tmp Normally directories are created with permission mode 755, which isn't desired for all directories. I haven't checked the FHS if they suggest default modes for certain directories, so I'll just change the modes for two directories. The first change is a mode 0750 for the $LFS/root directory. This is to make sure that not just everybody can enter the /root directory (the same you would do with /home/username directories). The second change is a mode 1777 for the $LFS/tmp directory. This way every user can write stuff to the /tmp directory if they need to. The sticky (1) bit makes sure users can't delete other user's file which they normally can do because the directory is set in such a way that every body (owner, group, world) can write to that directory. root:~# cd $LFS root:lfs# chmod 0750 root root:lfs# chmod 1777 tmp usr/tmp var/tmp Now that the directories are created, copy the source files you have downloaded in chapter 3 to some subdirectory under $LFS/usr/src (you will need to create this subdirectory yourself). Creating directories 45 Chapter 5. Preparing the LFS system Chapter 5. Preparing the LFS system 46 How and why things are done In this chapter we will install all the software that belongs to a basic Linux system. After you're done with this chapter you have a fully working Linux system. The remaining chapters deal with setting up networking, creating the boot scripts and adding an entry to lilo.conf so that you can boot your LFS system. The software in this chapter will be linked statically. These programs will be re−installed in the next chapter and linked dynamically. The reason for the static version first is that there is a chance that our normal Linux system and your LFS system aren't using the same C Library versions. If the programs in the first part are linked against an older C library version, those programs might not work well on the LFS system. The key to learn what makes Linux tick is to know exactly what packages are used for and why you or the system needs them. In depth descriptions of the package are provided after the Installation subsection of each package and in Appendix A as well. We're about to start with installing the first set of packages. These packages will be, as previously explained, linked statically. Before we start, make sure you have the LFS environment variable setup if you plan on using it, by running the following command: root:~# echo $LFS How and why things are done 47 Installing Bash Installation of Bash Install Bash by running the following commands: root:bash−2.04# ./configure −−enable−static−link \ > −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:bash−2.04# make root:bash−2.04# make prefix=$LFS/usr install root:bash−2.04# mv $LFS/usr/bin/bash \ > $LFS/usr/bin/bashbug $LFS/bin root:bash−2.04# cd $LFS/bin root:bin# ln −s bash sh Contents The Bash package contains the bash program Description Bash is the Bourne−Again SHell, which is a widely used command interpreter on Unix systems. Bash is a program that reads from standard input, the keyboard. You type something and the program will evaluate what you have typed and do something with it, like running a program. Installing Bash 48 Installing Binutils Installation of Binutils Install Binutils by running the following commands: root:binutils−2.10# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:binutils−2.10# make −e LDFLAGS=−all−static tooldir=/usr root:binutils−2.10# make −e prefix=$LFS/usr \ > tooldir=$LFS/usr install Description The Binutils package contains the ld, as, ar, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, size, strings, strip, c++filt, addr2line and nlmconv programs Description ld ld combines a number of object and archive files, relocates their data and ties up symbol references. Often the last step in building a new compiled program to run is a call to ld. as as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler gcc for use by the linker ld. ar The ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives. An archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files (called members of the archive). nm nm lists the symbols from object files. Installing Binutils 49 Linux From Scratch objcopy objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another. objcopy uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object files. It can write the destination object file in a format different from that of the source object file. objdump objdump displays information about one or more object files. The options control what particular information to display. This information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their program to compile and work. ranlib ranlib generates an index to the contents of an archive, and stores it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a member of an archive that is a relocatable object file. size size lists the section sizes −−and the total size−− for each of the object files objfile in its argument list. By default, one line of output is generated for each object file or each module in an archive. strings For each file given, strings prints the printable character sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number specified with an option to the program) and are followed by an unprintable character. By default, it only prints the strings from the initialized and loaded sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the strings from the whole file. strings is mainly useful for determining the contents of non−text files. strip strip discards all or specific symbols from object files. The list of object files may include archives. At least one object file must be given. strip modifies the files named in its argument, rather than writing modified copies under different names. objcopy 50 Linux From Scratch c++filt The C++ language provides function overloading, which means that you can write many functions with the same name (providing each takes parameters of different types). All C++ function names are encoded into a low−level assembly label (this process is known as mangling). The c++filt program does the inverse mapping: it decodes (demangles) low−level names into user−level names so that the linker can keep these overloaded functions from clashing. addr2line addr2line translates program addresses into file names and line numbers. Given an address and an executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to figure out which file name and line number are associated with a given address. nlmconv nlmconv converts relocatable object files into the NetWare Loadable Module files, optionally reading header files for NLM header information. c++filt 51 Installing Bzip2 Installation of Bzip2 Install Bzip2 by running the following commands: root:bzip2−1.0.1# sed \ > s/"\$(CC) \$(CFLAGS) −o"/"\$(CC) \$(CFLAGS) \$(LDFLAGS) −o"/ \ > Makefile | make −f /dev/stdin LDFLAGS=−static root:bzip2−1.0.1# make PREFIX=$LFS/usr install root:bzip2−1.0.1# cd $LFS/usr/bin root:bin# mv bzcat bunzip2 bzip2 bzip2recover $LFS/bin Contents The Bzip2 packages contains the bzip2, bunzip2, bzcat and bzip2recover programs. Description Bzip2 bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows−Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78−based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. Bunzip2 Bunzip2 decompresses files that are compressed with bzip2. bzcat bzcat (or bzip2 −dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. Installing Bzip2 52 Linux From Scratch bzip2recover bzip2recover recovers data from damaged bzip2 files. bzip2recover 53 Installing Diffutils Installation of Diffutils Install Diffutils by running the following commands: root:diffutils−2.7# CPPFLAGS=−Dre_max_failures=re_max_failures2 \ > ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:diffutils−2.7# make LDFLAGS=−static root:diffutils−2.7# make prefix=$LFS/usr install Contents The Diffutils packagec contains the cmp, diff, diff3 and sdiff programs. Description cmp and diff cmp and diff both compare two files and report their differences. Both programs have extra options which compare files in different situations. diff3 The difference between diff and diff3 is that diff comprares 2 files, diff3 compares 3 files. sdiff sdiff merges two two files and interactively outputs the results. Installing Diffutils 54 Installing Fileutils Installation of Fileutils Install Fileutils by running the following commands: root:fileutils−4.0# ./configure −−disable−nls −−prefix=/usr root:fileutils−4.0# make LDFLAGS=−static root:fileutils−4.0# make prefix=$LFS/usr install root:fileutils−4.0# cd $LFS/usr/bin root:bin# mv chgrp chmod chown cp dd df dir $LFS/bin root:bin# mv dircolors du install ln ls mkdir mkfifo $LFS/bin root:bin# mv mknod mv rm rmdir sync touch vdir $LFS/bin root:bin# ln −s ../../bin/install install Contents The Fileutils package contains the chgrp, chmod, chown, cp, dd, df, dir, dircolors, du, install, ln, ls, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, rm, rmdir, sync, touch and vdir programs. Description chgrp chgrp changes the group ownership of each given file to the named group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID. chmod chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions. chown chown changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file. Installing Fileutils 55 Linux From Scratch cp cp copies files from one place to another. dd dd copies a file (from the standard input to the standard output, by default) with a user−selectable blocksize, while optionally performing conversions on it. df df displays the amount of disk space available on the filesystem containing each file name argument. If no file name is given, the space available on all currently mounted filesystems is shown. ls, dir and vdir dir and vdir are versions of ls with different default output formats. These programs list each given file or directory name. Directory contents are sorted alphabetically. For ls, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically, if the standard output is a terminal; otherwise they are listed one per line. For dir, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically. For vdir, files are by default listed in long format. dircolors dircolors outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable. The LS_COLOR variable is use to change the default color scheme used by ls and related utilities. du du displays the amount of disk space used by each argument and for each subdirectory of directory arguments. install install copies files and sets their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group. ln ln makes hard or soft (symbolic) links between files. cp 56 Linux From Scratch mkdir mkdir creates directories with a given name. mkfifo mkfifo creates a FIFO with each given name. mknod mknod creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file with the given file name. mv mv moves files from one directory to another or renames files, depending on the arguments given to mv. rm rm removes files or directories. rmdir rmdir removes directories, if they are empty. sync sync forces changed blocks to disk and updates the super block. touch touch changes the access and modification times of each given file to the current time. Files that do not exist are created empty. mkdir 57 Installing GCC on the normal system if necessary Installation of GCC on the normal system if necessary In order to compile Glibc−2.1.3 later on you need to have gcc−2.95.2 installed. Although any GCC version above 2.8 would do, 2.95.2 is the highly recommended version to use. egcs−2.91.x is also known to work. If you don't have gcc−2.95.x or egcs−2.91.x you need to install gcc−2.95.2 on your normal sytem before you can compile Glibc later in this chapter. To find out which compiler version your systems has, run the following command: root:~# gcc −−version If you normal Linux system does not have gcc−2.95.x or egcs−2.91.x installed you need to install it now. We won't replace the current compiler on your system, but instead we will install gcc in a separate directory (/usr/local/gcc2952). This way no binaries or header files will be replaced. After you unpacked the gcc−2.95.2 archive don't enter the newly created gcc−2.95.2 directory but stay in the $LFS/usr/src directory. Install GCC by running the following commands: root:src# mkdir $LFS/usr/src/gcc−build root:src# cd $LFS/usr/src/gcc−build root:gcc−build# ../gcc−2.95.2/configure \ > −−prefix=/usr/local/gcc2952 \ > −−with−local−prefix=/usr/local/gcc2952 \ > −−with−gxx−include−dir=/usr/local/gcc2952/include/g++ \ > −−enable−shared −−enable−languages=c,c++ root:gcc−build# make bootstrap root:gcc−build# make install Contents The GCC package contains compilers, preprocessors and the GNU C++ Library. Description Installing GCC on the normal system if necessary 58 Linux From Scratch Compiler A compiler translates source code in text format to a format that a computer understands. After a source code file is compiled into an object file, a linker will create an executable file from one or more of these compiler generated object files. Pre−processor A pre−processor pre−processes a source file, such as including the contents of header files into the source file. You generally don't do this yourself to save yourself a lot of time. You just insert a line like #include <filename>. The pre−processor file insert the contents of that file into the source file. That's one of the things a pre−processor does. C++ Library The C++ library is used by C++ programs. The C++ library contains functions that are frequently used in C++ programs. This way the programmer doesn't have to write certain functions (such as writing a string of text to the screen) from scratch every time he creates a program. Compiler 59 Installing GCC on the LFS system Installation of GCC on the LFS system After you unpacked the gcc−2.95.2 archive don't enter the newly created gcc−2.95.2 directory but stay in the $LFS/usr/src directory. Install GCC by running the following commands: root:src# mkdir $LFS/usr/src/gcc−build root:src# cd $LFS/usr/src/gcc−build root:gcc−build# ../gcc−2.95.2/configure −−prefix=/usr \ > −−with−gxx−include−dir=/usr/include/g++ \ > −−enable−languages=c,c++ −−disable−nls root:gcc−build# make −e LDFLAGS=−static bootstrap root:gcc−build# make prefix=$LFS/usr local_prefix=$LFS/usr/local \ > gxx_include_dir=$LFS/usr/include/g++ install Creating necessary symlinks The system needs a few symlinks to ensure every program is able to find the compiler and the pre−processor. Some programs run the cc program, others run the gcc program. Some programs expect the cpp program in /lib and others expect to find it in /usr/bin. Create those symlinks by running: Replace <host> with the directory where the gcc−2.95.2 files are installed (which is i686−unknown−linux in my case). Create the symlinks by running: root:~# cd $LFS/lib root:lib# ln −s ../usr/lib/gcc−lib/<host>/2.95.2/cpp cpp root:lib# cd $LFS/usr/lib root:lib# ln −s gcc−lib/<host>/2.95.2/cpp cpp root:lib# cd $LFS/usr/bin root:bin# ln −s gcc cc Contents The GCC package contains compilers, preprocessors and the GNU C++ Library. Installing GCC on the LFS system 60 Linux From Scratch Description Compiler A compiler translates source code in text format to a format that a computer understands. After a source code file is compiled into an object file, a linker will create an executable file from one or more of these compiler generated object files. Pre−processor A pre−processor pre−processes a source file, such as including the contents of header files into the source file. You generally don't do this yourself to save yourself a lot of time. You just insert a line like #include <filename>. The pre−processor file insert the contents of that file into the source file. That's one of the things a pre−processor does. C++ Library The C++ library is used by C++ programs. The C++ library contains functions that are frequently used in C++ programs. This way the programmer doesn't have to write certain functions (such as writing a string of text to the screen) from scratch every time he creates a program. Description 61 Installing Linux Kernel Installation of Linux Kernel We won't be compiling a new kernel image yet. We'll do that after we have finished the installation of the basic system software in this chapter. But because certain software need the kernel header files, we're going to unpack the kernel archive now and set it up so that we can compile package that need the kernel. Create the kernel configuration file by running the following command: root:linux# yes "" | make config Ignore the warning Broken pipe you might see at the end. Now run the following commands to set up all the dependencies correctly: root:linux# make dep Now that that's done, we need to create the $LFS/usr/include/linux and the $LFS/usr/include/asm symlinks. Create them by running the following commands: root:~# cd $LFS/usr/include root:include# ln −s ../src/linux/include/linux linux root:include# ln −s ../src/linux/include/asm asm Contents The Linux kernel package contains the Linux kernel. Description The Linux kernel is at the core of every Linux system. It's what makes Linux tick. When you turn on your computer and boot a Linux system, the very first piece of Linux software that gets loaded is the kernel. The kernel initializes the system's hardware components such as serial ports, parallel ports, sound cards, network cards, IDE controllers, SCSI controllers and a lot more. In a nutshell the kernel makes the hardware available so that the software can run. Installing Linux Kernel 62 Installing Glibc A note on the glibc−crypt package An excerpt from the README file that is distributed with the glibc−crypt package: The add−on is not included in the main distribution of the GNU C library because some governments, most notably those of France, Russia, and the US, have very restrictive rules governing the distribution and use of encryption software. Please read the node "Legal Problems" in the manual for more details. In particular, the US does not allow export of this software without a licence, including via the Internet. So please do not download it from the main FSF FTP site at ftp.gnu.org if you are outside the US. This software was completely developed outside the US. "This software" refers to the glibc−crypt package at ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/glibc/. This law only affects people who don't live in the US. It's not prohibited to import DES software, so if you live in the US you can import the file safely from Germany without breaking cryptographic laws. This law is changing lately and I don't know what the status of it is at the moment. Better be safe than sory. Installation of Glibc Unpack the glibc−crypt and glibc−linuxthreads in the glibc−2.1.3 directory, not in /usr/src. Don't enter the created directories. Just unpack them and leave it with that. A few default parameters of Glibc need to be changed, such as the directory where the shared libraries are supposed to be installed in and the directory that contains the system configuration files. For this purpose you need to create the $LFS/usr/src/glibc−build directory and cd into that directory with: root:src# mkdir $LFS/usr/src/glibc−build root:src# cd $LFS/usr/src/glibc−build In that directory you create a new file configparms containing the following: # Begin configparms slibdir=/lib sysconfdir=/etc # End configparms If you're getting errors related to illegal character 45 in some variable name during the compilation, apply the Glibc patch to the glibc−2.1.3 directory by running the following command: root:glibc−2.1.3# patch −Np1 −i ../glibc−2.1.3.patch Installing Glibc 63 Linux From Scratch Please note that the configure script of Glibc can complain about certain files in the /usr/include directory being too old and will be replaced, or that some symlink is not supposed to be there anymore (like the /usr/include/scsi symlink that's present on older Linux systems). If it asks you to move a symlink like scsi out of the way, please do so. If it says it will replace old files by the newer Glibc files you can ignore that. Glibc does not know that it will end up on $LFS when the configure script is run. If your system had already a suitable GCC version installed, change to the $LFS/usr/src/glibc−build directory and install Glibc by running the following commands: root:glibc−build# ../glibc−2.1.3/configure \ > −−prefix=/usr −−enable−add−ons \ > −−with−headers=$LFS/usr/include root:glibc−build# make root:glibc−build# make install_root=$LFS install root:glibc−build# make install_root=$LFS localedata/install−locales root:glibc−build# localedef −i en_US −f ISO−8859−1 en_US In the above localedef command you will have to replace "en_US" and "ISO−8859−1" with the proper values for your localization needs. You can find out what's available by looking in the /usr/share/locale directory. If your system didn't have a suitable GCC version installed, change to the $LFS/usr/src/glibc−build directory and install Glibc using the gcc−2.95.2 you just installed by running the following commands: root:glibc−build# CC=/usr/local/gcc2952/bin/gcc \ > ../glibc−2.1.3/configure −−prefix=/usr −−enable−add−ons \ > −−with−headers=$LFS/usr/include root:glibc−build# make root:glibc−build# make install_root=$LFS install root:glibc−build# make install_root=$LFS localedata/install−locales Copying old NSS library files If your normal Linux system runs glibc−2.0, you need to copy the NSS library files to the LFS partition. Certain statically linked programs still depend on the NSS library, especially programs that need to lookup usernames,userid's and groupid's. You can check which C library version your normal Linux system uses by running: Copying old NSS library files 64 Linux From Scratch root:~# ls /lib/libc* Your system uses glib−2.0 if there is a file that looks like libc−2.0.7.so Your system uses glibc−2.1 if there is a file that looks like libc−2.1.3.so Of course, the micro version number can be different (you could have libc−2.1.2 or libc−2.1.1 for example). If you have a libc−2.0.x file copy the NSS library files by running: root:~# cp −av /lib/libnss* $LFS/lib There are a few distributions that don't have files from which you can see which version of the C Library it is. If that's the case, it will be hard to determine which C library version you exactly have. Try to obtain this information using your distribution's installation tool. It often says which version it has available. If you can't figure out at all which C Library version is used, then copy the NSS files anyway and hope for the best. That's the best advise I can give I'm afraid. Contents The Glibc package contains the GNU C Library. Description The C Library is a collection of commonly used functions in programs. This way a programmer doens't need to create his own functions for every single task. The most common things like writing a string to your screen are already present and at the disposal of the programmer. The C library (actually almost every library) come in two flavours: dynamic ones and static ones. In short when a program uses a static C library, the code from the C library will be copied into the executable file. When a program uses a dynamic library, that executable will not contain the code from the C library, but instead a routine that loads the functions from the library at the time the program is run. This means a significant decrease in the file size of a program. If you don't understand this concept, you better read the documentation that comes with the C Library as it is too complicated to explain here in one or two lines. Contents 65 Installing Grep Installation of Grep Install Grep by running the following commands: root:grep−2.4.2# CPPFLAGS=−Dre_max_failures=re_max_failures2 \ > ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:grep−2.4.2# make LDFLAGS=−static root:grep−2.4.2# make prefix=$LFS/usr install Contents The grep package contains the egrep, fgrep and grep programs. Description egrep egrep prints lines from files matching an extended regular expression pattern. fgrep fgrep prints lines from files matching a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which is to be matched. grep grep prints lines from files matching a basic regular expression pattern. Installing Grep 66 Installing Gzip Installation of Gzip This package is known to cause compilation problems on certain platforms. If you're having trouble compiling this package as well, you can download a patch from http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/download/gzip−1.2.4a.patch.gz Install this patch by running the following command: root:gzip−1.2.4a# patch −Np1 −i ../gzip−1.2.4a.patch Install Gzip by running the following commands: root:gzip−1.2.4a# root:gzip−1.2.4a# root:gzip−1.2.4a# root:gzip−1.2.4a# $LFS/bin root:gzip−1.2.4a# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls make LDFLAGS=−static make prefix=$LFS/usr install cp $LFS/usr/bin/gunzip $LFS/usr/bin/gzip rm $LFS/usr/bin/gunzip $LFS/usr/bin/gzip Contents The Gzip package contains the gunzip, gzexe, gzip, zcat, zcmp, zdiff, zforece, zgrep, zmore and znew programs. Description gunzip gunzip decompresses files that are compressed with gzip. gzexe gzexe allows you to compress executables in place and have them automatically uncompress and execute when you run them (at a penalty in performance). Installing Gzip 67 Linux From Scratch gzip gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel−Ziv coding (LZ77). zcat zcat uncompresses either a list of files on the command line or its standard input and writes the uncompressed data on standard output zcmp zcmp invokes the cmp program on compressed files. zdiff zdiff invokes the diff program on compressed files. zforce zforce forces a .gz extension on all gzip files so that gzip will not compress them twice. This can be useful for files with names truncated after a file transfer. zgrep zgrep invokes the grep program on compressed files. zmore Zmore is a filter which allows examination of compressed or plain text files one screenful at a time on a soft−copy terminal (similar to the more program). znew Znew recompresses files from .Z (compress) format to .gz (gzip) format. gzip 68 Installing Make Installation of Make Install Make by running the following commands: root:make−3.79.1# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:make−3.79.1# make LDFLAGS=−static root:make−3.79.1# make prefix=$LFS/usr install Contents The Make package contains the make program. Description make determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands to recompile them. Installing Make 69 Installing Sed Installation of Sed Install Sed by running the following commands: root:sed−3.02# CPPFLAGS=−Dre_max_failures=re_max_failures2 \ > ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:sed−3.02# make LDFLAGS=−static root:sed−3.02# make prefix=$LFS/usr install root:sed−3.02# mv $LFS/usr/bin/sed $LFS/bin Contents The Sed package contains the sed program. Description sed is a stream editor. A stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline). Installing Sed 70 Installing Shellutils Installation of Shellutils Install Shellutils by running the following commands: root:sh−utils−2.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls root:sh−utils−2.0# make LDFLAGS=−static root:sh−utils−2.0# make prefix=$LFS/usr install root:sh−utils−2.0# cd $LFS/usr/bin root:bin# mv date echo false pwd stty $LFS/bin root:bin# mv su true uname hostname $LFS/bin Contents The Shellutils package contains the basename, chroot, date, dirname, echo, env, expr, factor, false, groups, hostid, hostname, id, logname, nice, nohup, pathchk, pinky, printenv, printf, pwd, seq, sleep, stty, su, tee, test, true, tty, uname, uptime, users, who, whoami and yes programs. Description basename basename strips directory and suffixes from filenames. chroot chroot runs a command or interactive shell with special root directory. date date displays the current time in a specified format, or sets the system date. dirname dirname strips non−directory suffixes from file name. Installing Shellutils 71 Linux From Scratch echo echo displays a line of text. env env runs a program in a modified environment. expr expr evaluates expressions. factor factor prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers. false false always exits with a status code indicating failure. groups groups prints the groups a user is in. hostid hostid prints the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) for the current host. hostname hostname sets or prints the name of the current host system id id prints the real and effective UIDs and GIDs of a user or the current user. echo 72 Linux From Scratch logname logname prints the current user's login name. nice nice runs a program with modified scheduling priority. nohup nohup runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non−tty pathchk pathchk checks whether file names are valid or portable. pinky pinky is a lightweight finger utility which retrieves information about a certain user printenv printenv prints all or part of the environment. printf printf formats and print data (the same as the printf C function). pwd pwd prints the name of the current/working directory seq seq prints numbers in a certain range with a certain increment. logname 73 Linux From Scratch sleep sleep delays for a specified amount of time. stty stty changes and prints terminal line settings. su su runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs tee tee reads from standard input and write to standard output and files. test test checks file types and compares values. true True always exitx with a status code indicating success. tty tty prints the file name of the terminal connected to standard input. uname uname prints system information. uptime uptime tells how long the system has been running. sleep 74 Linux From Scratch users users prints the user names of users currently logged in to the current host. who who shows who is logged on. whoami whoami prints your effective userid. yes yes outputs a string repeatedly until killed. users 75 Installing Tar Installation of Tar Install Tar by running the following commands: root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls make LDFLAGS=−static make prefix=$LFS/usr install mv $LFS/usr/bin/tar $LFS/bin Contents The tar package contains the tar and rmt programs. Description tar tar is an archiving program designed to store and extract files from an archive file known as a tarfile. rmt rmt is a program used by the remote dump and restore programs in manipulating a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess communication connection. Installing Tar 76 Installing Textutils Installation of Textutils Install Textutils by running the following commands: root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls make LDFLAGS=−static make prefix=$LFS/usr install mv $LFS/usr/bin/cat $LFS/bin Contents The Textutils package contains the cat, cksum, comm, split, cut, expand, fmt, fold, head, join, md5sum, nl, od, paste, pr, ptx, sort, split, sum, tac, tail, tr, tsort, unexpand, uniq and wc programs. Description cat cat concatenates file(s) or standard input to standard output. cksum cksum prints CRC checksum and byte counts of each specified file. comm comm compares two sorted files line by line. csplit cplit outputs pieces of a file separated by (a) pattern(s) to files xx01, xx02, ..., and outputs byte counts of each piece to standard output. Installing Textutils 77 Linux From Scratch cut cut prints selected parts of lines from specified files to standard output. expand expand converts tabs in files to spaces, writing to standard output. fmt fmt reformats each paragraph in the specified file(s), writing to standard output. fold fold wraps input lines in each specified file (standard input by default), writing to standard output. head Print first xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. join join joins lines of two files on a common field. md5sum md5sum prints or checks MD5 checksums. nl nl writes each specified file to standard output, with line numbers added. od od writes an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of a specified file to standard output. cut 78 Linux From Scratch paste paste writes lines consisting of the sequentially corresponding lines from each specified file, separated by TABs, to standard output. pr pr paginates or columnates files for printing. ptx ptx produces a permuted index of file contents. sort sort writes sorted concatenation of files to standard output. split split outputs fixed−size pieces of an input file to PREFIXaa, PREFIXab, ... sum sum prints checksum and block counts for each specified file. tac tac writes each specified file to standard output, last line first. tail tail print the last xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. paste 79 Linux From Scratch tr tr translates, squeezes, and/or deletes characters from standard input, writing to standard output. tsort tsort writes totally ordered lists consistent with the partial ordering in specified files. unexpand unexpand converts spaces in each file to tabs, writing to standard output. uniq uniq discards all but one of successive identical lines from files or standard input and writes to files or standard output. wc wc prints line, word, and byte counts for each specified file, and a total line if more than one file is specified. tr 80 Creating passwd and group files In order for user and group root to be recognized and to be able to logon it needs an entry in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group file. Besides the group root a couple of other groups are recommended and needed by packages. The groups with their GID's below aren't part of any standard. The LSB only recommends besides a group root a group bin to be present with GID 1. Other group names and GID's can be chosen by yourself. Well written packages don't depend on GID numbers but just use the group name, it doesn't matter all that much what GID a group has. Since there aren't any standards for groups I won't follow any conventions used by Debian, RedHat and others. The groups added here are the groups the MAKEDEV script (the script that creates the device files in the /dev directory) mentions. Create a new file $LFS/etc/passwd by running the following command: root:~# echo "root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash" > $LFS/etc/passwd Create a new file $LFS/etc/group by running the following command: root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# root:~# echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo echo "root:x:0:" > $LFS/etc/group "bin:x:1:" >> $LFS/etc/group "sys:x:2:" >> $LFS/etc/group "kmem:x:3:" >> $LFS/etc/group "tty:x:4:" >> $LFS/etc/group "uucp:x:5:" >> $LFS/etc/group "daemon:x:6:" >> $LFS/etc/group "floppy:x:7:" >> $LFS/etc/group "disk:x:8:" >> $LFS/etc/group Creating passwd and group files 81 Copying /proc/devices In order for the MAKEDEV script properly create device entries in /dev it needs access to /proc/devices. We can't mount the proc file system on our LFS system yet so instead we just copy the /proc/devices file to $LFS/proc. This means the $LFS/proc/devices file won't be updated when the kernel updates /proc/devices but I don't see any harm in doing it, since it's only needed during the execution of the MAKEDEV script. Just make sure you don't add or remove any hardware during the next 3 minutes by loading or unloading a kernel module or rebooting your computer before continuing with this book. Copy the /proc/devices file by running the following command: root:~# cp /proc/devices $LFS/proc Copying /proc/devices 82 Chapter 6. Installing basic system software Chapter 6. Installing basic system software 83 Introduction The installation of all the software is pretty straightforward and you'll think it's so much easier and shorter to give the generic installation instructions for each package and only explain how to install something if a certain package requires an alternate installation method. Although I agree with you on that, I, however, choose to give the full instructions for each and every package. This is simply to avoid any possible confusion and errors. Introduction 84 Debugging symbols and compiler optimizations Most programs and libraries by default are compiled with debugging symbols and optimizing level 2 (gcc options −g and −O2) and are compiled for a specific CPU. On Intel platforms software is compiled for i386 processors by default. If you don't wish to run software on other machines other than your own, you might want to change the default compiler options so that they will be compiled with a higher optimization level, no debugging symbols and generate code for your specific architecture. Let me first explain what debugging symbols are. A program compiled with debugging symbols means you can run a program or library through a debugger and the debugger's output will be user friendlier. These debugging symbols also enlarge the program or library significantly. To remove debugging symbols from a binary (must be an a.out or ELF binary) run strip −−strip−debug filename You can use wild cards if you need to strip debugging symbols from multiple files (use something like strip −−strip−debug $LFS/usr/bin/*). Another, easier, options is just not to compile programs with debugging symbols. Most people will probably never use a debugger on software, so by leaving those symbols out you can save a lot of diskspace. Before you wonder if these debugging symbols would make a big difference, here are some statistics: • • • • A dynamic Bash binary with debugging symbols: 1.2MB A dynamic Bash binary without debugging symbols: 478KB /lib and /usr/lib (glibc and gcc files) with debugging symbols: 87MB /lib and /usr/lib (glibc and gcc files) without debugging symbols: 16MB Sizes may vary depending on which compiler was used and which C library version was used to link dynamic programs against, but your results will be similar if you compare programs with and without debugging symbols. After I was done with this chapter and stripped all debugging symbols from all LFS binaries and libraries I regained a little over 102 MB of disk space. Quite the difference. There are a few ways to change the default compiler options. One way is to edit every Makefile file you can find in a package, look for the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS variables (a well designed package uses the CFLAGS variable to define gcc compiler options and CXXFLAGS to define g++ compiler options) and change their values. Packages like binutils, gcc, glibc and others have a lot of Makefile files in a lot of subdirectories so this would take a lot of time to do. Instead there's an easier way to do things: create the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. Most configure scripts read the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS variables and use them in the Makefile files. A few packages don't follow this convention and those package require manual editing. In the next section we'll create the $LFS/root/.bash_profile that will contain the following optimization: CFLAGS="−O3 −mcpu=xxx −march=xxx" CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS Debugging symbols and compiler optimizations 85 Linux From Scratch This is a minimal set of optimizations that ensures it works on almost all platforms. These two options (mcpu and march) will compile the binaries with specific instructions for that CPU you have specified. This means you can't copy this binary to a lower class CPU and execute it. It will either work very unreliable or not at all (it will give errors like Illegal Instruction, core dumped). You'll have to read the GCC Info page to find more possible optimization flags. In the above environment variable you have to replace xxx and yyy with the appropriate CPU identifiers such as i586, i686, powerpc and others. Please keep in mind that if you find that a package doesn't compile and gives errors like "segmentation fault, core dumped" it's most likely got to do with these compiler optimizations. Try lowering the optimizing level by changing −O3 to −O2. If that doesn't work try −O or leave it out all together. Also try changing the −mcpu and −march variables. Compilers are very sensitive to certain hardware too. Bad memory can cause compilation problems when a high level of optimization is used, like the −O3 setting. The fact that I don't have any problems compiling everything with −O3 doesn't mean you won't have any problems either. Another problem can be the Binutils version that's installed on your system which often causes compilation problems in Glibc (most noticable in RedHat because RedHat often uses beta software which aren't always very stable. "RedHat likes living on the bleeding edge, but leaves the bleeding up to you" (quoted from somebody on the lfs−discuss mailinglist). Debugging symbols and compiler optimizations 86 Creating $LFS/root/.bash_profile When we have entered the chroot'ed environment in the next section we want to export a couple of environment variables in that shell such as TERM, CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and others variables you want to have set. For that purpose we'll create the $LFS/root/.bash_profile file and "source" it after we have entered the chroot'ed environment. Create a new file $LFS/root/.bash_profile containing the following. Replace −mcpu=xxx and −march=yyy with the proper values for your machine: # Begin /root/.bash_profile TERM=linux CFLAGS="−O3 −mcpu=xxx −march=yyy" CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS export TERM CFLAGS CXXFLAGS # End /root/.bash_profile You can add more environment variables at your own discretion as you deem them necesarry. Creating $LFS/root/.bash_profile 87 Entering the chroot'ed environment It's time to enter our chroot'ed environment in order to install the rest of the software we need. Enter the following command to enter the chroot'ed environment. From this point on there's no need to use the $LFS variable anymore, because everything you do will be restricted to the LFS partition (since / is actually /mnt/lfs but the shell doesn't know that). root:~# cd $LFS root:lfs# chroot $LFS env −i HOME=/root bash −−login Now that we are inside a chroot'ed environment, we can continue to install all the basic system software. Make sure you execute all the following commands in this chapter from within the chroot'ed environment. Entering the chroot'ed environment 88 Creating device files Installation of MAKEDEV Install MAKEDEV by running the following commands: root:MAKEDEV−2.5# sed "s/# 9/9/" MAKEDEV >/dev/MAKEDEV root:MAKEDEV−2.5# chmod 754 /dev/MAKEDEV Creating the /dev entries Create the device files by running the following commands: root:~# cd /dev root:dev# ./MAKEDEV −v generic Now that the device file entries are created the /proc/devices file can be removed by running the following command: root:~# rm /proc/devices Please note that this script dates back from 1997 and therefore can be outdated and not support newer hardware. If you need device files which aren't known by this script please read the Documentation/devices.txt file in a Linux source tree. This file lists all the major and minor numbers for all the device files that the kernel knows about. With this list you can create such device files yourself. See the mknod man page for more information on how to make device files yourself. Creating device files 89 Installing GCC Installation of GCC After you unpacked the gcc−2.95.2 archive don't enter the newly created gcc−2.95.2 directory but stay in the /usr/src directory. Install GCC by running the following commands: root:src# mkdir /usr/src/gcc−build root:src# cd /usr/src/gcc−build root:gcc−build# ../gcc−2.95.2/configure −−prefix=/usr \ > −−with−gxx−include−dir=/usr/include/g++ \ > −−enable−shared −−enable−languages=c,c++ root:gcc−build# make bootstrap root:gcc−build# make install Contents The GCC package contains compilers, preprocessors and the GNU C++ Library. Description Compiler A compiler translates source code in text format to a format that a computer understands. After a source code file is compiled into an object file, a linker will create an executable file from one or more of these compiler generated object files. Pre−processor A pre−processor pre−processes a source file, such as including the contents of header files into the source file. You generally don't do this yourself to save yourself a lot of time. You just insert a line like #include <filename>. The pre−processor file insert the contents of that file into the source file. That's one of the things a pre−processor does. C++ Library The C++ library is used by C++ programs. The C++ library contains functions that are frequently used in C++ programs. This way the programmer doesn't have to write certain functions (such as writing a string of text to the screen) from scratch every time he creates a program. Installing GCC 90 Installing Bison Installation of Bison Install Bison by running the following commands: root:bison−1.28# ./configure −−prefix=/usr \ > −−datadir=/usr/share/bison root:bison−1.28# make root:bison−1.28# make install Contents The Bison package contains the bison program. Description Bison is a parser generator, a replacement for YACC. YACC stands for Yet Another Compiler Compiler. What is Bison then? It is a program that generates a program that analyses the structure of a textfile. Instead of writing the actual program you specify how things should be connected and with those rules a program is constructed that analyses the textfile. There are alot of examples where structure is needed and one of them is the calculator. Given the string : 1+2*3 You can easily come to the result 7. Why ? Because of the structure. You know how to interpretet the string. The computer doesn't know that and Bison is a tool to help it understand by presenting the string in the following way to the compiler: + /\ *1 /\ 23 You start at the bottom of a tree and you come across the numbers 2 and 3 which are joined by the Installing Bison 91 Linux From Scratch multiplication symbol, so the computers multiplies 2 and 3. The result of that multiplication is remembered and the next thing that the computer sees is the result of 2*3 and the number 1 which are joined by the add symbol. Adding 1 to the previous result makes 7. In calculating the most complex calculations can be broken down in this tree format and the computer just starts at the bottom and works it's way up to the top and comes with the correct answer. Of course, Bison isn't only used for calculators alone. Installing Bison 92 Installing Mawk Installation of Mawk Install Mawk by running the following commands: root:mawk−1.3.3# ./configure root:mawk−1.3.3# make root:mawk−1.3.3# make BINDIR=/usr/bin \ > MANDIR=/usr/share/man/man1 install root:mawk−1.3.3# cd /usr/bin root:bin# ln −s mawk awk Contents The Mawk package contains the mawk program. Description gawk Mawk is an interpreter for the AWK Programming Language. The AWK language is useful for manipulation of data files, text retrieval and processing, and for prototyping and experimenting with algorithms. Installing Mawk 93 Installing Patch Installation of Patch Install Patch by running the following commands: root:patch−2.5.4# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:patch−2.5.4# make root:patch−2.5.4# make install Contents The Patch package contains the patch program. Description The patch program modifies a file according to a patch file. A patch file usually is a list created by the diff program that contains instructions on how an original file needs to be modified. Patch is used a lot for source code patches since it saves time and space. Imagine you have a package that is 1MB in size. The next version of that package only has changes in two files of the first version. You can ship an entirely new package of 1MB or provide a patch file of 1KB which will update the first version to make it identical to the second version. So if you have downloaded the first version already, a patch file can save you a second large download. Installing Patch 94 Installing Findutils Installing Findutils This package is known to cause compilation problem. If you're having trouble compiling this package as well, apply the Findutils patch. Install this patch by running the following command: root:findutils−4.1# patch −Np1 −i ../findutils−4.1.patch Install Findutils by running the following commands: root:findutils−4.1# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:findutils−4.1# make root:findutils−4.1# make install Contents The Findutils package contains the find, locate, updatedb and xargs programs. Description Find The find program searches for files in a directory hierarchy which match a certain criteria. If no criteria is given, it lists all files in the current directory and it's subdirectories. Locate Locate scans a database which contain all files and directories on a filesystem. This program lists the files and directories in this database matching a certain criteria. If you're looking for a file this program will scan the database and tell you exactly where the files you requested are located. This only makes sense if your locate database is fairly up−to−date else it will provide you with out−of−date information. Installing Findutils 95 Linux From Scratch Updatedb The updatedb program updates the locate database. It scans the entire file system (including other file system that are currently mounted unless you specify it not to) and puts every directory and file it finds into the database that's used by the locate program which retrieves this information. It's a good practice to update this database once a day so that you are ensured of a database that is up−to−date. Xargs The xargs command applies a command to a list of files. If you need to perform the same command on multiple files, you can create a file that contains all these files (one per line) and use xargs to perform that command on the list. Updatedb 96 Installing Ncurses Installation of Ncurses Install Ncurses by running the following commands: root:ncurses−5.1# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−libdir=/lib \ > −−with−shared −−disable−termcap root:ncurses−5.1# make root:ncurses−5.1# make install Contents The Ncurses package contains the ncurses, panel, menu and form libraries. It also contains the tic, infocmp, clear, tput, toe and tset programs. Description The libraries The libraries that make up the Ncurses library are used to display text (often in a fancy way) on your screen. An example where ncurses is used is in the kernel's "make menuconfig" process. The libraries contain routines to create panels, menu's, form and general text display routines. Tic Tic is the terminfo entry−description compiler. The program translates a terminfo file from source format into the binary format for use with the ncurses library routines. Terminfo files contain information about the capabilities of your terminal. Infocmp The infocmp program can be used to compare a binary terminfo entry with other terminfo entries, rewrite a terminfo description to take advantage of the use= terminfo field, or print out a terminfo description from the binary file (term) in a variety of formats (the opposite of what tic does). Installing Ncurses 97 Linux From Scratch clear The clear program clears your screen if this is possible. It looks in the environment for the terminal type and then in the terminfo database to figure out how to clear the screen. tput The tput program uses the terminfo database to make the values of terminal−dependent capabilities and information available to the shell, to initialize or reset the terminal, or return the long name of the requested terminal type. toe The toe program lists all available terminal types by primary name with descriptions. tset The Tset program initializes terminals so they can be used, but it's not widely used anymore. It's provided for 4.4BSD compatibility. clear 98 Installing Less Installation of Less Install Less by running the following commands: root:less−358# root:less−358# root:less−358# root:less−358# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /usr/bin/less /bin Contents The Less package contains the less program Description The less program is a file pager (or text viewer). It displays the contents of a file with the ability to scroll. Less is an improvement on the common pager called "more". Less has the ability to scroll backwards through files as well and it doesn't need to read the entire file when it starts, which makes it faster when you are reading large files. Installing Less 99 Installing Groff Installation of Groff Install Groff by running the following commands: root:groff−1.16# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:groff−1.16# make root:groff−1.16# make install Contents The Groff packages contains the addftinfo, afmtodit, eqn, grodvi, groff, grog, grohtml, grolj4, grops, grotty, hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, neqn, nroff, pfbtops, pic, psbb, refer, soelim, tbl, tfmtodit and troff programs. Description addftinfo addftinfo reads a troff font file and adds some additional font−metric information that is used by the groff system. afmtodit afmtodit creates a font file for use with groff and grops. eqn eqn compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff. grodvi grodvi is a driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format. Installing Groff 100 Linux From Scratch groff groff is a front−end to the groff document formatting system. Normally it runs the troff program and a postprocessor appropriate for the selected device. grog grog reads files and guesses which of the groff options −e, −man, −me, −mm, −ms, −p, −s, and −t are required for printing files, and prints the groff command including those options on the standard output. grohtml grohtml translates the output of GNU troff to html grolj4 grolj4 is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for an HP Laserjet 4 printer. grops grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript. grotty grotty translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for typewriter−like devices. hpftodit hpftodit creates a font file for use with groff −Tlj4 from an HP tagged font metric file. indxbib indxbib makes an inverted index for the bibliographic databases a specified file for use with refer, lookbib, and lkbib. groff 101 Linux From Scratch lkbib lkbib searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified keys and prints any references found on the standard output. lookbib lookbib prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is not a terminal), reads from the standard input a line containing a set of keywords, searches the bibliographic databases in a specified file for references containing those keywords, prints any references found on the standard output, and repeats this process until the end of input. neqn It is currently not known what neqn is and what it does. nroff The nroff script emulates the nroff command using groff. pfbtops pfbtops translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII. pic pic compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input files into commands that are understood by TeX or troff. psbb psbb reads a file which should be a PostScript document conforming to the Document Structuring conventions and looks for a %%BoundingBox comment. refer refer copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands about how citations are to be processed. lkbib 102 Linux From Scratch soelim soelim reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of file. tbl tbl compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff. tfmtodit tfmtodit creates a font file for use with groff −Tdvi troff troff is highly compatible with Unix troff. Usually it should be invoked using the groff command, which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate options. soelim 103 Installing Man Installation of Man Install Man by running the following commands: root:man-1.5h1# ./configure −default root:man-1.5h1# make root:man-1.5h1# make install Contents The Man package contains the man, apropos whatis and makewhatis programs. Description man man formats and displays the on−line manual pages. apropos apropos searches a set of database files containing short descriptions of system commands for keywords and displays the result on the standard output. whatis whatis searches a set of database files containing short descriptions of system commands for keywords and displays the result on the standard output. Only complete word matches are displayed. makewhatis makewhatis reads all the manual pages contained in given sections of manpath or the preformatted pages contained in the given sections of catpath. For each page, it writes a line in the whatis database; each line consists of the name of the page and a short description, separated by a dash. The description is extracted using the content of the NAME section of the manual page. Installing Man 104 Installing Perl Installation of Perl Install Perl by running the following commands: root:perl−5.6.0# root:perl−5.6.0# root:perl−5.6.0# root:perl−5.6.0# ./Configure −Dprefix=/usr make make test make install If you don't want to answer all those questions Perl asks you, you can add the −d option to the configure script and Perl will use all the default settings. Also note that a few tests during the make test phase will fail for various reasons. One being there's not network support yet and a few packages haven't been installed yet. It's ok if not every test succeeds. If there are between 5 and 10 failed tests you're just fine. You might want to reinstall perl after you're done with chapter 7. Contents The Perl package contains Perl − Practical Extraction and Report Language Description Perl combines the features and capabilities of C, awk, sed and sh into one powerful programming language. Installing Perl 105 Installing M4 Installation of M4 Install M4 by running the following commands: root:m4−1.4# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:m4−1.4# make root:m4−1.4# make install If you're base system is running a 2.0 kernel and your Glibc version is 2.1 then you will most likely get problems executing M4 in the chroot'ed environment due to incompatibilities between the M4 program, Glibc−2.1 and the running 2.0 kernel. If you have problems executing the m4 program in the chroot'ed environment (for example when you install the autoconf and automake packages) you'll have to exit the chroot'ed environment and compile M4 statically. This way the binary is linked against Glibc 2.0 (if you run kernel 2.0 you're Glibc version is 2.0 as well on a decent system. Kernel 2.0 and Glibc−2.1 don't mix very well) and won't give you any problems. To create a statically linked version of M4, execute the following commands: root:m4−1.4# root:lfs# cd root:m4−1.4# root:m4−1.4# root:m4−1.4# root:m4−1.4# logout $LFS/usr/src/m4−1.4 ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−disable−nls make LDFLAGS=−static make prefix=$LFS/usr install chroot $LFS env −i HOME=/root bash −−login Now you can re−enter the chroot'ed environment and continue with the next package. If you wish to recompile M4 dynamically, you can do that after you have rebooted into the LFS system rather than chroot'ed into it. Contents The M4 package contains the M4 processor Description M4 is a macro processor. It copies input to output expanding macros as it goes. Macros are either builtin or user−defined and can take any number of arguments. Besides just doing macro expansion m4 has builtin functions for including named files, running UNIX commands, doing integer arithmetic, manipulating text in various ways, recursion, etc. M4 can be used either as a front−end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its Installing M4 106 Linux From Scratch own right. Installing M4 107 Installing Texinfo Installation of Texinfo Install Texinfo by running the following commands: root:texinfo−4.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:texinfo−4.0# make root:texinfo−4.0# make install Contents The Texinfo package contains the info, install−info, makeinfo, texi2dvi and texindex programs Description info The info program reads Info documents, usually contained in your /usr/doc/info directory. Info documents are like man(ual) pages, but they tend to be more in depth than just explaining the options to a program. install−info The install−info program updates the info entries. When you run the info program a list with available topics (ie: available info documents) will be presented. The install−info program is used to maintain this list of available topics. If you decice to remove info files manually, you need to delete the topic in the index file as well. This program is used for that. It also works the other way around when you add info documents. makeinfo The makeinfo program translates Texinfo source documents into various formats. Available formats are: info files, plain text and HTML. texi2dvi The texi2dvi program prints Texinfo documents Installing Texinfo 108 Linux From Scratch texindex The texindex program is used to sort Texinfo index files. texindex 109 Installing Autoconf Installation of Autoconf Install Autoconf by running the following commands: root:autoconf−2.13# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:autoconf−2.13# make root:autoconf−2.13# make install Contents The Autoconf package contains the autoconf, autoheader, autoreconf, autoscan, autoupdate and ifnames programs Description autoconf Autoconf is a tool for producing shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of UNIX−like systems. The configuration scripts produced by Autoconf are independent of Autoconf when they are run, so their users do not need to have Autoconf. autoheader The autoheader program can create a template file of C #define statements for configure to use autoreconf If you have a lot of Autoconf−generated configure scripts, the autoreconf program can save you some work. It runs autoconf (and autoheader, where appropriate) repeatedly to remake the Autoconf configure scripts and configuration header templates in the directory tree rooted at the current directory. autoscan The autoscan program can help you create a configure.in file for a software package. autoscan examines source files in the directory tree rooted at a directory given as a command line argument, or the current directory if none is given. It searches the source files for common portability problems and creates a file Installing Autoconf 110 Linux From Scratch configure.scan which is a preliminary configure.in for that package. autoupdate The autoupdate program updates a configure.in file that calls Autoconf macros by their old names to use the current macro names. ifnames ifnames can help when writing a configure.in for a software package. It prints the identifiers that the package already uses in C preprocessor conditionals. If a package has already been set up to have some portability, this program can help you figure out what its configure needs to check for. It may help fill in some gaps in a configure.in generated by autoscan. autoupdate 111 Installing Automake Installation of Automake Install Automake by running the following commands: root:automake−1.4# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:automake−1.4# make install Contents The Automake package contains the aclocal and automake programs Description aclocal Automake includes a number of Autoconf macros which can be used in your package; some of them are actually required by Automake in certain situations. These macros must be defined in your aclocal.m4; otherwise they will not be seen by autoconf. The aclocal program will automatically generate aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of configure.in. This provides a convenient way to get Automake−provided macros, without having to search around. Also, the aclocal mechanism is extensible for use by other packages. automake To create all the Makefile.in's for a package, run the automake program in the top level directory, with no arguments. automake will automatically find each appropriate Makefile.am (by scanning configure.in) and generate the corresponding Makefile.in. Installing Automake 112 Installing Bash Installation of Bash Install Bash by running the following commands: root:bash−2.04# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−with−ncurses root:bash−2.04# make root:bash−2.04# make install root:bash−2.04# logout root:lfs# mv $LFS/usr/bin/bash $LFS/usr/bin/bashbug $LFS/bin root:lfs# chroot $LFS env −i HOME=/root bash −−login Contents The Bash package contains the bash program Description Bash is the Bourne−Again SHell, which is a widely used command interpreter on Unix systems. Bash is a program that reads from standard input, the keyboard. You type something and the program will evaluate what you have typed and do something with it, like running a program. Installing Bash 113 Installing Flex Installation of Flex Install Flex by running the following commands: root:flex−2.5.4a# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:flex−2.5.4a# make root:flex−2.5.4a# make install Contents The Flex package contains the flex program Description Flex is a tool for generating programs which regognize patterns in text. Pattern recognition is very useful in many applications. You set up rules what to look for and flex will make a program that looks for those patterns. The reason people use flex is that it is much easier to set up rules for what to look for than to write the actual program that finds the text. Installing Flex 114 Installing File Installation of File Install File by running the following commands: root:file−3.31# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−datadir=/usr/share/misc root:file−3.31# make root:file−3.31# make install Contents The File package contains the file program. Description File tests each specified file in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. Installing File 115 Installing Libtool Installation of Libtool Install Libtool by running the following commands: root:libtool−1.3.5# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:libtool−1.3.5# make root:libtool−1.3.5# make install Contents The Libtool package contains the libtool and libtoolize programs. It also contains the ltdl library. Description libtool Libtool provides generalized library−building support services. libtoolize libtoolize provides a standard way to add libtool support to your package. ltdl library Libtool provides a small library, called `libltdl', that aims at hiding the various difficulties of dlopening libraries from programmers. Installing Libtool 116 Installing Bin86 Installation of Bin86 Install Linux86 by running the following commands: root:bin86# make root:bin86# make PREFIX=/usr install Contents The Bin86 contains the as86, as86_encap, ld86, objdump86, nm86 and size86 programs. Description as86 as86 is an assembler for the 8086...80386 processors. as86_encap as86_encap is a shell script to call as86 and convert the created binary into a C file prog.v to be included in or linked with programs like boot block installers. ld86 ld86 understands only the object files produced by the as86 assembler, it can link them into either an impure or a separate I&D executable. objdump86 No description available. Installing Bin86 117 Linux From Scratch nm86 No description available. size86 No description available. nm86 118 Installing Binutils Installation of Binutils Install Binutils by running the following commands: root:binutils−2.10# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−enable−shared root:binutils−2.10# make −e tooldir=/usr root:binutils−2.10# make −e tooldir=/usr install Description The Binutils package contains the ld, as, ar, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, size, strings, strip, c++filt, addr2line and nlmconv programs Description ld ld combines a number of object and archive files, relocates their data and ties up symbol references. Often the last step in building a new compiled program to run is a call to ld. as as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler gcc for use by the linker ld. ar The ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives. An archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files (called members of the archive). nm nm lists the symbols from object files. Installing Binutils 119 Linux From Scratch objcopy objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another. objcopy uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object files. It can write the destination object file in a format different from that of the source object file. objdump objdump displays information about one or more object files. The options control what particular information to display. This information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their program to compile and work. ranlib ranlib generates an index to the contents of an archive, and stores it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a member of an archive that is a relocatable object file. size size lists the section sizes −−and the total size−− for each of the object files objfile in its argument list. By default, one line of output is generated for each object file or each module in an archive. strings For each file given, strings prints the printable character sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number specified with an option to the program) and are followed by an unprintable character. By default, it only prints the strings from the initialized and loaded sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the strings from the whole file. strings is mainly useful for determining the contents of non−text files. strip strip discards all or specific symbols from object files. The list of object files may include archives. At least one object file must be given. strip modifies the files named in its argument, rather than writing modified copies under different names. objcopy 120 Linux From Scratch c++filt The C++ language provides function overloading, which means that you can write many functions with the same name (providing each takes parameters of different types). All C++ function names are encoded into a low−level assembly label (this process is known as mangling). The c++filt program does the inverse mapping: it decodes (demangles) low−level names into user−level names so that the linker can keep these overloaded functions from clashing. addr2line addr2line translates program addresses into file names and line numbers. Given an address and an executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to figure out which file name and line number are associated with a given address. nlmconv nlmconv converts relocatable object files into the NetWare Loadable Module files, optionally reading header files for NLM header information. c++filt 121 Installing Bzip2 Installation of Bzip2 Install Bzip2 by running the following commands: root:bzip2−1.0.1# make −f Makefile−libbz2_so root:bzip2−1.0.1# make bzip2recover libbz2.a root:bzip2−1.0.1# cp bzip2−shared /bin/bzip2 root:bzip2−1.0.1# cp bzip2recover /bin root:bzip2−1.0.1# cp bzip2.1 /usr/share/man/man1 root:bzip2−1.0.1# cp bzlib.h /usr/include root:bzip2−1.0.1# cp −a libbz2.so* libbz2.a /lib root:bzip2−1.0.1# rm /usr/lib/libbz2.a root:bzip2−1.0.1# cd /bin root:bin# rm bunzip2 && ln −s bzip2 bunzip2 root:bin# rm bzcat && ln −s bzip2 bzcat root:bin# cd /usr/share/man/man1 root:man1# ln −s bzip2.1 bunzip2.1 root:man1# ln −s bzip2.1 bzcat.1 root:man1# ln −s bzip2.1 bzip2recover.1 Although it's not strictly a part of a basic LFS system it's worth mentioning that you can donwload a patch for Tar which enables the tar program to compress and uncompress using bzip2/bunzip2 easily. With a plain tar you'll have to use constructions like bzcat file.tar.bz|tar xv or tar −−use−compress−prog=bunzip2 −xvf file.tar.bz2 to use bzip2 and bunzip2 with tar. This patch gives you the −y option so you can unpack a Bzip2 archive with tar xvfy file.tar.bz2. Applying this patch will be mentioned later on when you re−install the Tar package. Contents The Bzip2 packages contains the bzip2, bunzip2, bzcat and bzip2recover programs. Description Bzip2 bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows−Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78−based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. Installing Bzip2 122 Linux From Scratch Bunzip2 Bunzip2 decompresses files that are compressed with bzip2. bzcat bzcat (or bzip2 −dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. bzip2recover bzip2recover recovers data from damaged bzip2 files. Bunzip2 123 Installing Gettext Installation of Gettext Install Gettext by running the following commands: root:gettext−0.10.35# root:gettext−0.10.35# root:gettext−0.10.35# root:gettext−0.10.35# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /po−mode.el /usr/share/gettext Contents The gettext package contains the gettext, gettextize, msgcmp, msgcomm, msgfmt, msgmerge, msgunfmt and xgettext programs. Description gettext The gettext package is used for internationalization (also known as i18n) and for localization (also known as l10n). Programs can be compiled with Native Language Support (NLS) which enable them to output messages in your native language rather than in the default English languge. Installing Gettext 124 Installing Consoletools Installation of Console−tools Before you start installing Console−tools you have to unpack the console−tools−0.2.3.patch file. Install Console−tools by running the following commands: root:console−tools−0.2.3# patch −Np1 −i ../console−tools−0.2.3.patch root:console−tools−0.2.3# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:console−tools−0.2.3# make root:console−tools−0.2.3# make install Contents The Console−tools package contains the charset, chvt, consolechars, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, fix_bs_and_del, font2psf, getkeycodes, kbd_mode, loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, mk_modmap, openvt, psfaddtable, psfgettable, psfstriptable, resizecons, saveunimap, screendump, setfont, setkeycodes, setleds, setmetamode, setvesablank, showcfont, showkey, splitfont, unicode_start, unicode_stop, vcstime, vt−is−URF8, writevt Description charset charset sets an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charsets slots. chvt chvt changes foreground virtual terminal. codepage No description available. Installing Consoletools 125 Linux From Scratch consolechars consolechars loads EGA/VGA console screen fonts, screen font maps and/or application−charset maps. deallocvt deallocvt deallocates unused virtual terminals. dumpkeys dumpkeys dumps keyboard translation tables. fgconsole fgconsole prints the number of the active virtual terminal. fix_bs_and_del No description available. font2psf No description available. getkeycodes getkeycodes prints the kernel scancode−to−keycode mapping table. kbd_mode kbd_mode reports or sets the keyboard mode. loadkeys loadkeys loads keyboard translation tables. consolechars 126 Linux From Scratch loadunimap No description available. mapscrn No description available. mk_modmap No description available. openvt openvt starts a program on a new virtual terminal. psfaddtable psfaddtable adds a Unicode character table to a console font. psfgettable psfgettable extracts the embedded Unicode character table from a console font. psfstriptable psfstriptable removes the embedded Unicode character table from a console font. resizecons resizecons changes the kernel idea of the console size. saveunimap No description available. loadunimap 127 Linux From Scratch screendump No description available. setfont No description available. setkeycodes setkeycodes loads kernel scancode−to−keycode mapping table entries. setleds setleds sets the keyboard leds. setmetamode setmetamode defines the keyboard meta key handling. setvesablank No description available. showcfont showcfont displays all character in the current screenfont. showkey showkey examines the scancodes and keycodes sent by the keyboard. splitfont No description available. screendump 128 Linux From Scratch unicode_start unicode_start puts the console in Unicode mode. unicode_stop No description available. vcstime No description available. vt−is−UTF8 vt−is−UTF8 checks whether the current virtual terminal is in UTF8− or byte−mode. writevt No description available. unicode_start 129 Installing Consoledata Installation of Console−data Replace <path−to−kmap−file> below with the correct path to the desired kmap.gz file. An example could be i386/qwerty/us.kmap.gz Install Console−data by running the following commands: root:console−data−1999.08.29# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:console−data−1999.08.29# make root:console−data−1999.08.29# make install root:console−data−1999.08.29# cd /usr/share/keymaps root:keymaps# ln −s <path−to−kmap−file> defkeymap.kmap.gz Contents The console−data package contains the data files that are used and needed by the console−tools package. Installing Consoledata 130 Installing Diffutils Installation of Diffutils Install Diffutils by running the following commands: root:diffutils−2.7# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:diffutils−2.7# make root:diffutils−2.7# make install Contents The Diffutils packagec contains the cmp, diff, diff3 and sdiff programs. Description cmp and diff cmp and diff both compare two files and report their differences. Both programs have extra options which compare files in different situations. diff3 The difference between diff and diff3 is that diff comprares 2 files, diff3 compares 3 files. sdiff sdiff merges two two files and interactively outputs the results. Installing Diffutils 131 Installing E2fsprogs Installation of E2fsprogs Install E2fsprogs by running the following commands: Please note that the empty −−with−root−prefix= option below is supposed to be like this. I did not forget to supply a value there. root:e2fsprogs−1.19# ./configure −−prefix=/usr −−with−root−prefix= \ > −−enable−elf−shlibs root:e2fsprogs−1.19# make root:e2fsprogs−1.19# make install Contents The e2fsprogs package contains the chattr, lsattr, uuidgen, badblocks, debugfs, dumpe2fs, e2fsck, e2label, fsck, fsck.ext2, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mklost+found and tune2fs programs. Description chattr chattr changes the file attributes on a Linux second extended file system. lsattr lsattr lists the file attributes on a second extended file system. uuidgen The uuidgen program creates a new universally unique identifier (UUID) using the libuuid library. The new UUID can reasonably be considered unique among all UUIDs created on the local system, and among UUIDs created on other systems in the past and in the future. Installing E2fsprogs 132 Linux From Scratch badblocks badblocks is used to search for bad blocks on a device (usually a disk partition). debugfs The debugfs program is a file system debugger. It can be used to examine and change the state of an ext2 file system. dumpe2fs dumpe2fs prints the super block and blocks group information for the filesystem present on a specified device. e2fsck and fsck.ext2 e2fsck is used to check a Linux second extended file system. fsck.ext2 does the same as e2fsck. e2label e2label will display or change the filesystem label on the ext2 filesystem located on the specified device. fsck fsck is used to check and optionally repair a Linux file system. mke2fs and mkfs.ext2 mke2fs is used to create a Linux second extended file system on a device (usually a disk partition). mkfs.ext2 does the same as mke2fs. mklost+found mklost+found is used to create a lost+found directory in the current working directory on a Linux second extended file system. mklost+found pre−allocates disk blocks to the directory to make it usable by e2fsck. badblocks 133 Linux From Scratch tune2fs tune2fs adjusts tunable filesystem parameters on a Linux second extended filesystem. tune2fs 134 Installing Ed Installation of Ed Install Ed by running the following commands: root:ed−0.2# root:ed−0.2# root:ed−0.2# root:ed−0.2# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /usr/bin/ed /usr/bin/red /bin Contents The Ed package contains the ed program. Description Ed is a line−oriented text editor. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files. Installing Ed 135 Installing Fileutils Installation of Fileutils Install Fileutils by running the following commands: root:fileutils−4.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:fileutils−4.0# make root:fileutils−4.0# make install root:fileutils−4.0# cd /usr/bin root:bin# mv chgrp chmod chown cp dd df dir /bin root:bin# mv dircolors du install ln ls mkdir mkfifo /bin root:bin# mv mknod rm rmdir sync touch vdir /bin root:bin# cp mv /bin && rm mv root:bin# ln −s ../../bin/install install Contents The Fileutils package contains the chgrp, chmod, chown, cp, dd, df, dir, dircolors, du, install, ln, ls, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, rm, rmdir, sync, touch and vdir programs. Description chgrp chgrp changes the group ownership of each given file to the named group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID. chmod chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions. chown chown changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file. Installing Fileutils 136 Linux From Scratch cp cp copies files from one place to another. dd dd copies a file (from the standard input to the standard output, by default) with a user−selectable blocksize, while optionally performing conversions on it. df df displays the amount of disk space available on the filesystem containing each file name argument. If no file name is given, the space available on all currently mounted filesystems is shown. ls, dir and vdir dir and vdir are versions of ls with different default output formats. These programs list each given file or directory name. Directory contents are sorted alphabetically. For ls, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically, if the standard output is a terminal; otherwise they are listed one per line. For dir, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically. For vdir, files are by default listed in long format. dircolors dircolors outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable. The LS_COLOR variable is use to change the default color scheme used by ls and related utilities. du du displays the amount of disk space used by each argument and for each subdirectory of directory arguments. install install copies files and sets their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group. ln ln makes hard or soft (symbolic) links between files. cp 137 Linux From Scratch mkdir mkdir creates directories with a given name. mkfifo mkfifo creates a FIFO with each given name. mknod mknod creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file with the given file name. mv mv moves files from one directory to another or renames files, depending on the arguments given to mv. rm rm removes files or directories. rmdir rmdir removes directories, if they are empty. sync sync forces changed blocks to disk and updates the super block. touch touch changes the access and modification times of each given file to the current time. Files that do not exist are created empty. mkdir 138 Installing Grep Installation of Grep Install Grep by running the following commands: root:grep−2.4.2# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:grep−2.4.2# make root:grep−2.4.2# make install Contents The grep package contains the egrep, fgrep and grep programs. Description egrep egrep prints lines from files matching an extended regular expression pattern. fgrep fgrep prints lines from files matching a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which is to be matched. grep grep prints lines from files matching a basic regular expression pattern. Installing Grep 139 Installing Gzip Installation of Gzip Install Gzip by running the following commands: root:gzip−1.2.4a# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:gzip−1.2.4a# make root:gzip−1.2.4a# make install root:gzip−1.2.4a# cd /usr/bin root:bin# mv gzip /bin root:bin# rm gunzip /bin/gunzip root:bin# cd /bin root:bin# ln −s gzip gunzip Contents The Gzip package contains the gunzip, gzexe, gzip, zcat, zcmp, zdiff, zforece, zgrep, zmore and znew programs. Description gunzip gunzip decompresses files that are compressed with gzip. gzexe gzexe allows you to compress executables in place and have them automatically uncompress and execute when you run them (at a penalty in performance). gzip gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel−Ziv coding (LZ77). Installing Gzip 140 Linux From Scratch zcat zcat uncompresses either a list of files on the command line or its standard input and writes the uncompressed data on standard output zcmp zcmp invokes the cmp program on compressed files. zdiff zdiff invokes the diff program on compressed files. zforce zforce forces a .gz extension on all gzip files so that gzip will not compress them twice. This can be useful for files with names truncated after a file transfer. zgrep zgrep invokes the grep program on compressed files. zmore Zmore is a filter which allows examination of compressed or plain text files one screenful at a time on a soft−copy terminal (similar to the more program). znew Znew recompresses files from .Z (compress) format to .gz (gzip) format. zcat 141 Installing Ldso Installation of Ld.so Install Ld.so by running the following commands: root:ld.so−1.9.9# cd util root:util# make ldd ldconfig root:util# cp ldd /bin root:util# cp ldconfig /sbin root:util# cd ../man root:man# cp ldd.1 /usr/share/man/man1 root:man# cp *.8 /usr/share/man/man8 root:man# rm /usr/bin/ldd root:man# hash −r The "hash −r" command is to make bash forget about the locations of previously executed commands. If you have executed ldd before, bash expects it to be found in /usr/bin. Since we moved it to /bin, the cache needs to be purged so bash can find it in /bin when you want to execute it again. You might have noticed that we don't use the compiler optimizations for this package. The reason is that overriding the CFLAGS variable causes compilation problems. You would have to edit the Config.mk file and add the proper values to the CFLAGS variable and then compile the package. If you want to do that it's up to you. I don't think it's worth the trouble though. The ld and ldd programs usually are only rarely used. Contents From the Ld.so package we're using the ldconfig and ldd programs. Description ldconfig ldconfig creates the necessary links and cache (for use by the run−time linker, ld.so) to the most recent shared libraries found in the directories specified on the command line, in the file /etc/ld.so.conf, and in the trusted directories (/usr/lib and /lib). ldconfig checks the header and file names of the libraries it encounters when determining which versions should have their links updated. Installing Ldso 142 Linux From Scratch ldd ldd prints the shared libraries required by each program or shared library specified on the command line. ldd 143 Installing Vim Installation of Vim You need to unpack both the vim−rt and vim−src packages to install Vim. Both packages will unpack their files into the vim−5.7 directory. This won't overwrite any files from the other package. So it doesn't mattter in which order you do it. Install Vim by running the following commands: root:vim−5.7# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:vim−5.7# make root:vim−5.7# make install root:vim−5.7# cd /usr/bin root:bin# ln −s vim vi If you are planning on installing the X Window system on your LFS system, you might want to re−compile Vim after you have installed X. Vim comes with a nice GUI version of the editor which requires X and a few other libraries to be installed. For more information read the Vim documentation. Contents The Vim package contains the ctags, etags, ex, gview, gvim, rgview, rgvim, rview, rvim, view, vim, vimtutor and xxd programs. Description ctags ctags generate tag files for source code. etags etags does the same as ctags but it can generate cross reference files which list information about the various source objects found in a set of lanugage files. ex ex starts vim in Ex mode. Installing Vim 144 Linux From Scratch gview gview is the GUI version of view. gvim gvim is the GUI version of vim. rgview rgview is teh GUI version of rview. rgvim rgvim is the GUI version of rvim. rview rview is a restricted version of view. No shell commands can be started and Vim can't be suspended. rvim rvim is the restricted version of vim. No shell commands can be started and Vim can't be suspended. view view starts vim in read−only mode. vim vim starts vim in the normal, default way. vimtutor vimtutor starts the Vim tutor. gview 145 Linux From Scratch xxd xxd makes a hexdump or does the reverse. xxd 146 Installing Lilo Installation of Lilo Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS varialbe if you want to add compiler optimization to this package. Install Lilo by running the following commands: root:lilo−21.5# make root:lilo−21.5# make install It appears that compilation of this package fails on certain machines when the −g compiler flag is being used. If you can't compile Lilo at all, please try removing the −g value from the CFLAGS variable in the Makefile file. At the end of the installation the make install process will print a message stating that you have to execute /sbin/lilo to complete the update. Don't do this as it has no use. The /etc/lilo.conf isn't present yet. We will complete the installation of lilo in chapter 8. Contents The Lilo package contains the lilo program. Description lilo installs the Linux boot loader which is used to start a Linux system. Installing Lilo 147 Installing Make Installation of Make Install Make by running the following commands: root:make−3.79.1# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:make−3.79.1# make root:make−3.79.1# make install Contents The Make package contains the make program. Description make determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands to recompile them. Installing Make 148 Installing Modutils Installation of Modutils Install Modutils by running the following commands: root:modutils−2.3.13# ./configure root:modutils−2.3.13# make root:modutils−2.3.13# make install Contents The Modutils package contains the depmod, genksyms, insmod, insmod_ksymoops_clean, kerneld, kernelversion, ksyms, lsmod, modinfo, modprobe and rmmod programs. Description depmod depmod handles dependency descriptions for loadable kernel modules. genksyms genksyms reads (on standard input) the output from gcc −E source.c and generates a file containing version information. insmod insmod installs a loadable module in the running kernel. insmod_ksymoops_clean insmod_ksymoops_clean deletes saved ksyms and modules not accessed in 2 days. Installing Modutils 149 Linux From Scratch kerneld kerneld performs kernel action in user space (such as on−demand loading of modules) kernelversion kernelversion reports the major version of the running kernel. ksyms ksyms displays exported kernel symbols. lsmod lsmod shows information about all loaded modules. modinfo modinfo examines an object file associated with a kernel module and displays any information that it can glean. modprobe Modprobe uses a Makefile−like dependency file, created by depmod, to automatically load the relevant module(s) from the set of modules available in predefined directory trees. rmmod rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel. kerneld 150 Installing Procinfo Installation of Procinfo Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimizations to this package. Install Procinfo by running the following commands: root:procinfo−17# >Makefile2 root:procinfo−17# root:procinfo−17# root:procinfo−17# sed "s/−ltermcap/−lncurses/" Makefile mv Makefile2 Makefile make make install Contents The Procinfo package contains the procinfo program. Description procinfo gathers some system data from the /proc directory and prints it nicely formatted on the standard output device. Installing Procinfo 151 Installing Procps Installation of Procps Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimizations to this package. Install Procps by running the following commands: root:procps−2.0.7# >Makefile2 root:procps−2.0.7# root:procps−2.0.7# root:procps−2.0.7# root:procps−2.0.7# sed "s/XConsole/#XConsole/" Makefile mv Makefile2 Makefile make make install mv /usr/bin/kill /bin Contents The Procps package contains the free, kill, oldps, ps, skill, snice, sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w and watch programs. Description free free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the shared memory and buffers used by the kernel. kill kills sends signals to processes. oldps and ps ps gives a snapshot of the current processes. Installing Procps 152 Linux From Scratch skill skill sends signals to process matching a criteria. snice snice changes the scheduling priority for process matching a criteria. sysctl sysctl modifies kernel parameters at runtime. tload tload prints a graph of the current system load average to the specified tty (or the tty of the tload process if none is specified). top top provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real time. uptime uptime gives a one line display of the following information: the current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes. vmstat vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity. w w displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes. skill 153 Linux From Scratch watch watch runs command repeatedly, displaying its output (the first screenfull). watch 154 Installing Psmisc Installation of Psmisc Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimizations to this package. Install Psmisc by running the following commands: root:psmisc# root:psmisc# root:psmisc# root:psmisc# sed "s/−ltermcap/−lncurses/" Makefile >Makefile2 mv Makefile2 Makefile make make install Contents The Psmisc package contains the fuser, killall and pstree programs. Description fuser fuser displays the PIDs of processes using the specified files or file systems. killall killall sends a signal to all processes running any of the specified commands. pstree pstree shows running processes as a tree. Installing Psmisc 155 Installing Sed Installation of Sed Install Sed by running the following commands: root:sed−3.02# root:sed−3.02# root:sed−3.02# root:sed−3.02# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /usr/bin/sed /bin Contents The Sed package contains the sed program. Description sed is a stream editor. A stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline). Installing Sed 156 Installing Shellutils Installation of Shell Utils Install Shellutils by running the following commands: root:sh−utils−2.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:sh−utils−2.0# make root:sh−utils−2.0# make install root:sh−utils−2.0# cd /usr/bin root:bin# mv date echo false pwd stty /bin root:bin# mv su true uname hostname /bin Contents The Shellutils package contains the basename, chroot, date, dirname, echo, env, expr, factor, false, groups, hostid, hostname, id, logname, nice, nohup, pathchk, pinky, printenv, printf, pwd, seq, sleep, stty, su, tee, test, true, tty, uname, uptime, users, who, whoami and yes programs. Description basename basename strips directory and suffixes from filenames. chroot chroot runs a command or interactive shell with special root directory. date date displays the current time in a specified format, or sets the system date. dirname dirname strips non−directory suffixes from file name. Installing Shellutils 157 Linux From Scratch echo echo displays a line of text. env env runs a program in a modified environment. expr expr evaluates expressions. factor factor prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers. false false always exits with a status code indicating failure. groups groups prints the groups a user is in. hostid hostid prints the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) for the current host. hostname hostname sets or prints the name of the current host system id id prints the real and effective UIDs and GIDs of a user or the current user. echo 158 Linux From Scratch logname logname prints the current user's login name. nice nice runs a program with modified scheduling priority. nohup nohup runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non−tty pathchk pathchk checks whether file names are valid or portable. pinky pinky is a lightweight finger utility which retrieves information about a certain user printenv printenv prints all or part of the environment. printf printf formats and print data (the same as the printf C function). pwd pwd prints the name of the current/working directory seq seq prints numbers in a certain range with a certain increment. logname 159 Linux From Scratch sleep sleep delays for a specified amount of time. stty stty changes and prints terminal line settings. su su runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs tee tee reads from standard input and write to standard output and files. test test checks file types and compares values. true True always exitx with a status code indicating success. tty tty prints the file name of the terminal connected to standard input. uname uname prints system information. uptime uptime tells how long the system has been running. sleep 160 Linux From Scratch users users prints the user names of users currently logged in to the current host. who who shows who is logged on. whoami whoami prints your effective userid. yes yes outputs a string repeatedly until killed. users 161 Installing Shadowpwd Installation of Shadow Password Suite Install the Shadow Password Suite by running the following commands: root:shadow−19990827# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:shadow−19990827# make root:shadow−19990827# make install root:shadow−19990827# cd etc root:etc# cp limits login.access \ > login.defs.linux shells suauth /etc root:etc# mv /etc/login.defs.linux /etc/login.defs Contents The Shadow Password Suite contains the chage, chfn, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, lastlog, login, newgrp, passwd, sg, su, chpasswd, dpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, logoutd, mkpasswd, newusers, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, useradd, userdel, usermod and vipw programs. Description chage chage changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change. chfn chfn changes user fullname, office number, office extension, and home phone number information for a user's account. chsh chsh changes the user login shell. Installing Shadowpwd 162 Linux From Scratch expiry It's currently unknown what this program is for. faillog faillog formats the contents of the failure log,/var/log/faillog, and maintains failure counts and limits. gpasswd gpasswd is used to administer the /etc/group file lastlog lastlog formats and prints the contents of the last login log, /var/log/lastlog. The login−name, port, and last login time will be printed. login login is used to establish a new session with the system. newgrp newgrp is used to change the current group ID during a login session. passwd passwd changes passwords for user and group accounts. sg sg executes command as a different group ID. expiry 163 Linux From Scratch su Change the effective user id and group id to that of a user. This replaces the su programs that's installed from the Shellutils package. chpasswd chpasswd reads a file of user name and password pairs from standard input and uses this information to update a group of existing users. dpasswd dpasswd adds, deletes, and updates dialup passwords for user login shells. groupadd The groupadd command creates a new group account using the values specified on the command line and the default values from the system. groupdel The groupdel command modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to group. groupmod The groupmod command modifies the system account files to reflect the changes that are specified on the command line. grpck grpck verifies the integrity of the system authentication information. grpconv grpunconv converts to shadow group files from normal group files. su 164 Linux From Scratch grpunconv grpunconv converts from shadow group files to normal group files. logoutd logoutd enforces the login time and port restrictions specified in /etc/porttime. mkpasswd mkpasswd reads a file in the format given by the flags and converts it to the corresponding database file format. newusers newusers reads a file of user name and cleartext password pairs and uses this information to update a group of existing users or to create new users. pwck pwck verifies the integrity of the system authentication information. pwconv pwconv converts to shadow passwd files from normal passwd files. pwunconv pwunconv converts from shadow passwd files to normal files. useradd useradd creates a new user or update default new user information. grpunconv 165 Linux From Scratch userdel userdel modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to a specified login name. usermod usermod modifies the system account files to reflect the changes that are specified on the command line. vipw and vigr vipw and vigr will edit the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group, respectively. With the −s flag, they will edit the shadow versions of those files, /etc/shadow and /etc/gshadow, respectively. userdel 166 Installing Sysklogd Installation of Sysklogd Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimizations to this package. Install Sysklogd by running the following commands: root:sysklogd−1.3−31# make root:sysklogd−1.3−31# make install Contents The Sysklogd package contains the klogd and syslogd programs. Description klogd klogd is a system daemon which intercepts and logs Linux kernel messages. syslogd Syslogd provides a kind of logging that many modern programs use.Every logged message contains at least a time and a hostname field, normally a program name field, too, but that depends on how trusty the logging program is. Installing Sysklogd 167 Installing Sysvinit Installation of Sysvinit Edit the src/Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimizations to this package. Install Sysvinit by running the following commands: root:sysvinit−2.78# cd src root:sysvinit−2.78# make root:sysvinit−2.78# make install Contents The Sysvinit package contains the pidof, last, lastb, mesg, utmpdump, wall, halt, init, killall5, poweroff, reboot, runlevel, shutdown, sulogin and telinit programs. Description pidof Pidof finds the process id's (pids) of the named programs and prints those id's on standard output. last last searches back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the file designated by the −f flag) and displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since that file was created. lastb lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts. mesg Mesg controls the access to your terminal by others. It's typically used to allow or disallow other users to write to your terminal. Installing Sysvinit 168 Linux From Scratch utmpdump utmpdumps prints the content of a file (usually /var/run/utmp) on standard output in a user friendly format. wall Wall sends a message to everybody logged in with their mesg permission set to yes. halt Halt notes that the system is being brought down in the file /var/log/wtmp, and then either tells the kernel to halt, reboot or poweroff the system. If halt or reboot is called when the system is not in runlevel 0 or 6, shutdown will be invoked instead (with the flag −h or −r). init Init is the parent of all processes. Its primary role is to create processes from a script stored in the file /etc/inittab. This file usually has entries which cause init to spawn gettys on each line that users can log in. It also controls autonomous processes required by any particular system. killall5 killall5 is the SystemV killall command. It sends a signal to all processes except the processes in its own session, so it won't kill the shell that is running the script it was called from. poweroff poweroff is equivalent to shutdown −h −p now. It halts the computer and switches off the computer (when using an APM compliant BIOS and APM is enabled in the kernel). reboot reboot is equivalent to shutdown −r now. It reboots the computer. utmpdump 169 Linux From Scratch runlevel Runlevel reads the system utmp file (typically /var/run/utmp) to locate the runlevel record, and then prints the previous and current system runlevel on its standard output, separated by a single space. shutdown shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged−in users are notified that the system is going down, and login is blocked. sulogin sulogin is invoked by init when the system goes into single user mode (this is done through an entry in /etc/inittab). Init also tries to execute sulogin when it is passed the −b flag from the bootmonitor (eg, LILO). telinit telinit sends appropriate signals to init, telling it which runlevel to change to. runlevel 170 Installing Tar Installation of Tar If you want to apply the Bzip2 tar patch which gives you the −y option to tar so you can use bzip2 files with tar, first download the patch from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/bzip2/ and apply it by running the following command within the src directory under the tar−1.13 directory: root:tar−1.13# cd src root:src# patch −i ../../gnutarpatch.txt Install Tar by running the following commands: root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# root:tar−1.13# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /usr/bin/tar /bin Contents The tar package contains the tar and rmt programs. Description tar tar is an archiving program designed to store and extract files from an archive file known as a tarfile. rmt rmt is a program used by the remote dump and restore programs in manipulating a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess communication connection. Installing Tar 171 Installing Textutils Installation of Textutils Install Textutuils by running the following commands: root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# root:textutils−2.0# ./configure −−prefix=/usr make make install mv /usr/bin/cat /bin Contents The Textutils package contains the cat, cksum, comm, split, cut, expand, fmt, fold, head, join, md5sum, nl, od, paste, pr, ptx, sort, split, sum, tac, tail, tr, tsort, unexpand, uniq and wc programs. Description cat cat concatenates file(s) or standard input to standard output. cksum cksum prints CRC checksum and byte counts of each specified file. comm comm compares two sorted files line by line. csplit cplit outputs pieces of a file separated by (a) pattern(s) to files xx01, xx02, ..., and outputs byte counts of each piece to standard output. Installing Textutils 172 Linux From Scratch cut cut prints selected parts of lines from specified files to standard output. expand expand converts tabs in files to spaces, writing to standard output. fmt fmt reformats each paragraph in the specified file(s), writing to standard output. fold fold wraps input lines in each specified file (standard input by default), writing to standard output. head Print first xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. join join joins lines of two files on a common field. md5sum md5sum prints or checks MD5 checksums. nl nl writes each specified file to standard output, with line numbers added. od od writes an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of a specified file to standard output. cut 173 Linux From Scratch paste paste writes lines consisting of the sequentially corresponding lines from each specified file, separated by TABs, to standard output. pr pr paginates or columnates files for printing. ptx ptx produces a permuted index of file contents. sort sort writes sorted concatenation of files to standard output. split split outputs fixed−size pieces of an input file to PREFIXaa, PREFIXab, ... sum sum prints checksum and block counts for each specified file. tac tac writes each specified file to standard output, last line first. tail tail print the last xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. paste 174 Linux From Scratch tr tr translates, squeezes, and/or deletes characters from standard input, writing to standard output. tsort tsort writes totally ordered lists consistent with the partial ordering in specified files. unexpand unexpand converts spaces in each file to tabs, writing to standard output. uniq uniq discards all but one of successive identical lines from files or standard input and writes to files or standard output. wc wc prints line, word, and byte counts for each specified file, and a total line if more than one file is specified. tr 175 Installing Utillinux Installation of Util−Linux Before we can install the package we have to edit the MCONFIG file, find and modify the following variables as follows: HAVE_SLN=yes HAVE_TSORT=yes Now find the following lines in the MCONFIG file: ifeq "$(CPU)" "intel" OPT= −pipe −O2 −m486 −fomit−frame−pointer else ifeq "$(CPU)" "arm" OPT= −pipe −O2 −fsigned−char fomit−frame−pointer else OPT= −O2 −fomit−frame−pointer endif endif Modify the proper OPT variable to include the −mcpu= and −march= options. If you modify the first OPT variable, replace −m486 with the −mcpu variable. Install Util−Linux by running the following commands: root:util−linux−2.10m# ./configure root:util−linux−2.10m# make root:util−linux−2.10m# make install Contents The Util−linux package contains the arch, dmesg, kill, more, mount, umount, agetty, blockdev, cfdisk, ctrlaltdel, elvtune, fdisk, fsck.minix, hwclock, kbdrate, losetup, mkfs, mkfs.bfs, mkfs.minix, mkswap, sfdisk, swapoff, swapon, cal, chkdupexe, col, colcrt, colrm, column, cytune, ddate, fdformat, getopt, hexdump, ipcrm, ipcs, logger, look, mcookie, namei, rename, renice, rev, script, setfdprm, setsid, setterm, ul, whereis, write, ramsize, rdev, readprofile, rootflags, swapdev, tunelp and vidmode programs. Installing Utillinux 176 Linux From Scratch Description arch arch prints the machine architecture. dmesg dmesg is used to examine or control the kernel ring buffer (boot messages from the kernel). kill kill sends a specified signal to the specified process. more more is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. mount mount mounts a filesystem from a device to a directory (mount point). umount umount unmounts a mounted filesystem. agetty agetty opens a tty port, prompts for a login name and invokes the /bin/login command. blockdev No description available. Description 177 Linux From Scratch cfdisk cfdisk is an libncurses based disk partition table manipulator. ctrlaltdel ctrlaltdel sets the function of the CTRL+ALT+DEL key combination (hard or soft reset). elvtune elvtune allows to tune the I/O elevator per blockdevice queue basis. fdisk fdisk is a disk partition table manipulator. fsck.minix fsck.minix performs a consistency check for the Linux MINIX filesystem. hwclock hwclock queries and sets the hardware clock (Also called the RTC or BIOS clock). kbdrate kbdrate resets the keyboard repeat rate and delay time. losetup losetup sets up and controls loop devices. mkfs mkfs builds a Linux filesystem on a device, usually a harddisk partition. cfdisk 178 Linux From Scratch mkfs.bfs mkfs.bfs creates a SCO bfs file system on a device, usually a harddisk partition. mkfs.minix mkfs.minix creates a Linux MINIX filesystem on a device, usually a harddisk partition. mkswap mkswap sets up a Linux swap area on a device or in a file. sfdisk sfdisk is a disk partition table manipulator. swapoff swapoff disables devices and files for paging an swapping. swapon swapon enables devices and files for paging and swapping. cal cal displays a simple calender. chkdupexe chkdupexe finds duplicate executables. col col filters reverse line feeds from input. mkfs.bfs 179 Linux From Scratch colcrt colcrt filters nroff output for CRT previewing. colrm colrm removes columns from a file. column column columnates lists. cytune cytune queries and modifies the interruption threshold for the Cyclades driver. ddate ddate converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates. fdformat fdformat low−level formats a floppy disk. getopt getops parses command options the same way as the getopt C command. hexdump hexdump displays specified files, or standard input, in a user specified format (ascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal). colcrt 180 Linux From Scratch ipcrm ipcrm removes a specified resource. ipcs ipcs provides information on ipc facilities. logger logger makes entries in the system log. look look displays lines beginning with a given string. mcookie mcookie generates magic cookies for xauth. namei namei follows a pathname until a terminal point is found. rename rename renames files. renice renice alters priority of running processes. rev rev reverses lines of a file. ipcrm 181 Linux From Scratch script script makes typescript of terminal session. setfdprm setfdprm sets user−provides floppy disk parameters. setsid setsid runs programs in a new session. setterm setterm sets terminal attributes. ul ul reads a file and translates occurences of underscores to the sequence which indicates underlining for the terminal in use. whereis whereis locates a binary, source and manual page for a command. write write sends a message to another user. ramsize ramsize queries and sets RAM disk size. script 182 Linux From Scratch rdev rdev queries and sets image root device, swap device, RAM disk size, or video mode. readprofile readprofile reads kernel profiling information. rootflags rootflags queries and sets extra information used when mounting root. swapdev swapdev queries and sets swap device. tunelp tunelp sets various paramters for the lp device. vidmode vidmode queries and sets the video mode. rdev 183 Installing Man−pages Installation of Man−pages Install Man−pages by running the following commands: root:man−pages−1.30# yes n|cp −avi man* /usr/share/man Contents The Man−pages package contains various manual pages that don't come with the packages. Description Examples of provided manual pages are the manual pages describing all the C and C++ functions, few important /dev/ files and more. Installing Man−pages 184 Removing old NSS library files If you have copied the NSS Library files from your normal Linux system to the LFS system (because your normal system runs glibc−2.0) it's time to remove them now by running: root:~# rm /lib/libnss*.so.1 /lib/libnss*2.0* Removing old NSS library files 185 Configuring essential software Now that all software is installed, all that we need to do to get a few programs running properly is to create their configuration files. Configuring Vim By default Vim runs in vi compatible mode. Some people might like this, but I have a high preference to run vim in vim mode (else I wouldn't have included Vim in this book but the original Vi). Create the /root/.vimrc containing the following: " Begin /root/.vimrc set nocompatible set bs=2 " End /root/.vimrc Configuring Glibc We need to create the /etc/nsswitch.conf file. Although glibc should provide defaults when this file is missing or corrupt, it's defaults don't work work well with networking which will be dealt with in a later chapter. Also, our timezone needs to be setup. Create a new file /etc/nsswitch.conf containing the following: # Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf passwd: files group: files shadow: files hosts: files dns networks: files protocols: db files services: db files ethers: db files rpc: db files netgroup: db files # End /etc/nsswitch.conf Run the tzselect script and answer the questions regarding your timezone. When you're done, the script will give you the location of the timezone file you need. Create the /etc/localtime symlink by running: Configuring essential software 186 Linux From Scratch root:~# cd /etc root:etc# rm localtime root:etc# ln −s ../usr/share/zoneinfo/<tzselect's output> \ > localtime tzselect's output can be something like EST5EDT or Canada/Eastern. The symlink you would create with that information would be ln −s ../usr/share/zoneinfo/EST5EDT localtime or ln −s ../usr/share/zoneinfo/Canada/Eastern localtime Configuring Dynamic Loader By default the dynamic loader searches a few default paths for dynamic libraries, so there normally isn't a need for the /etc/ld.so.conf file unless you have extra directories in which you want the system to search for paths. The /usr/local/lib directory isn't searched through for dynamic libraries by default, so we want to add this path so when you install software you won't be suprised by them not running for some reason. Create a new file /etc/ld.so.conf containing the following: # Begin /etc/ld.so.conf /lib /usr/lib /usr/local/lib # End /etc/ld.so.conf Although it's not necessary to add the /lib and /usr/lib directories it doesn't hurt. This way you see right away what's being searched and don't have to remeber the default search paths if you don't want to. Configuring Lilo We're not going to create lilo's configuration file from scratch, but we'll use the file from your normal Linux system. This file is different on every machine and thus I can't create it here. Since you would want to have the same options regarding lilo as you have when you're using your normal Linux system you would create the file exactly as it is on the normal system. Copy the Lilo configuration file and kernel images that Lilo uses by running the following commands from a shell on your normal Linux system. Don't execute these commands from your chroot'ed shell. root:~# cp /etc/lilo.conf $LFS/etc root:~# cp /boot/<kernel images> $LFS/boot Configuring Dynamic Loader 187 Linux From Scratch Before you can execute the second command you need to know the names of the kernel images. You can't just copy all files from the /boot directory. The /etc/lilo.conf file contains the names of the kernel images you're using. Open the file and look for lines like this: image=/boot/vmlinuz Look for all image variables and their values represent the name and location of the image files. These files will usually be in /boot but they might be in other directories as well, depending on your distribution's conventions. Configuring Sysklogd Create a new file /etc/syslog.conf containing the following: # Begin /etc/syslog.conf auth,authpriv.* −/var/log/auth.log *.*;auth,authpriv.none −/var/log/sys.log daemon.* −/var/log/daemon.log kern.* −/var/log/kern.log mail.* −/var/log/mail.log user.* −/var/log/user.log *.emerg * # End /etc/syslog.conf Configuring Shadow Password Suite This package contains the utilities to modify user's passwords, add new users/groups, delete users/groups and more. I'm not going to explain to you what 'password shadowing' means. You can read all about that in the doc/HOWTO file within the unpacked shadow password suite's source tree. There's one thing you should keep in mind, if you decide to use shadow support, that programs that need to verify passwords (examples are xdm, ftp daemons, pop3 daemons, etc) need to be 'shadow−compliant', eg. they need to be able to work with shadow'ed passwords. Shadow'ed passwords are not enabled by default. Simply installing the shadow password suite does not enable shadow'ed passwords. Now is a very good moment to read chapter 5 of the doc/HOWTO file. You can read how you can enable shadow'ed passwords, how to test whether shadowing works and if not, how to disable it again. Configuring Sysklogd 188 Linux From Scratch Configuring Sysvinit Create a new file /etc/inittab containing the following: # Begin /etc/inittab id:3:initdefault: si::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS l0:0:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 0 l1:S1:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 1 l2:2:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 2 l3:3:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 3 l4:4:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 4 l5:5:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 5 l6:6:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 6 f1:0:respawn:/sbin/sulogin f2:6:respawn:/sbin/sulogin ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown −t1 −a −r now su:S1:respawn:/sbin/sulogin 1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty1 9600 2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty2 9600 3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty3 9600 4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty4 9600 5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty5 9600 6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty /dev/tty6 9600 # End /etc/inittab Creating the /var/run/utmp, /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp files Programs like login, shutdown, uptime and others want to read from and write to the /var/run/utmp /var/log/btmp and /var/log/wtmp. These files contain information about who is currently logged in. It also contains information on when the computer was last booted and shutdown and a record of the bad login attemps. Create these files with their proper permissions by running the following commands: root:~# touch /var/run/utmp /var/log/wtmp /var/log/btmp root:~# chmod 644 /var/run/utmp /var/log/wtmp /var/log/btmp Configuring Sysvinit 189 Linux From Scratch Creating root password Choose a password for user root and create it by running the following command: root:~# passwd root Creating root password 190 Chapter 7. Creating system boot scripts Chapter 7. Creating system boot scripts 191 What is being done here This chapter will create the necessary scripts that are run at boottime. These scripts perform tasks such as remounting the root file system mounted read−only by the kernel into read−write mode, activiating the swap partition(s), running a check on the root file system to make sure it's intact and starting the daemons that the system uses. What is being done here 192 Creating directories We need to start by creating a few extra directories that are used by the boot scripts. Create these directories by running: root:~# cd /etc root:etc# mkdir sysconfig rc0.d rc1.d rc2.d rc3.d root:etc# mkdir rc4.d rc5.d rc6.d init.d rcS.d Creating directories 193 Creating the rc script The first main bootscript is the /etc/init.d/rc script. Create a new file /etc/init.d/rc containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/rc # # By Jason Pearce − [email protected] # Modified by Gerard Beekmans − [email protected] # print_error_msg based on ideas by Simon Perreault − [email protected] source /etc/init.d/functions print_error_msg() { echo $FAILURE echo −n "You should not read this error message. It means " echo "that an unforseen error " echo −n "took place and subscript $i exited with " echo "return value " echo −n "of $error_value for an unknown reason. If you're able " echo "to trace this error down " echo −n "to a bug in one of the files provided by this book, " echo "please be so kind to " echo −n "inform us at lfs−[email protected]" $NORMAL echo } # Un−comment the following for debugging. # debug=echo # # Start script or program. # startup() { case "$1" in *.sh) $debug sh "[email protected]" ;; *) $debug "[email protected]" ;; esac } # Ignore CTRL−C only in this shell, so we can interrupt subprocesses. trap ":" INT QUIT TSTP # Set onlcr to avoid staircase effect. stty onlcr 0>&1 # Now find out what the current and what the previous runlevel are. runlevel=$RUNLEVEL # Get first argument. Set new runlevel to this argument. Creating the rc script 194 Linux From Scratch [ "$1" != "" ] && runlevel=$1 if [ "$runlevel" = "" ] then echo "Usage: $0 <runlevel>" >&2 exit 1 fi previous=$PREVLEVEL [ "$previous" = "" ] && previous=N export runlevel previous # Is there an rc directory for this new runlevel? if [ −d /etc/rc$runlevel.d ] then # First, run the KILL scripts for this runlevel. if [ $previous != N ] then for i in /etc/rc$runlevel.d/K* do [ ! −f $i ] && continue suffix=${i#/etc/rc$runlevel.d/K[0−9][0−9]} previous_start=/etc/rc$previous.d/S[0−9][0−9]$suffix sysinit_start=/etc/rcS.d/S[0−9][0−9]$suffix # Stop the service if there is a start script # in the previous run level. [ ! −f $previous_start ] && [ ! −f $sysinit_start] && continue startup $i stop error_value=$? if [ $error_value != 0 ] then print_error_msg fi done fi # Now run the START scripts for this runlevel. for i in /etc/rc$runlevel.d/S* do [ ! −f $i ] && continue if [ $previous != N ] then # Find start script in previous runlevel and # stop script in this runlevel. suffix=${i#/etc/rc$runlevel.d/S[0−9][0−9]} stop=/etc/rc$runlevel.d/K[0−9][0−9]$suffix previous_start=/etc/rc$previous.d/S[0−9][0−9]$suffix # If there is a start script in the previous # level # and _no_ stop script in this level, we don't # have to re−start the service. [ −f $previous_start ] && [ ! −f $stop ] && continue fi Creating the rc script 195 Linux From Scratch case "$runlevel" in 0|6) startup $i stop error_value=$? if [ $error_value != 0 ] then print_error_msg fi ;; *) startup $i start error_value=$? if [ $error_value != 0 ] then print_error_msg fi ;; esac done fi # End /etc/init.d/rc Creating the rc script 196 Creating the rcS script The second main bootscript is the rcS script. Create a new file /etc/init.d/rcS containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/rcS runlevel=S prevlevel=N umask 022 export runlevel prevlevel trap ":" INT QUIT TSTP for i in /etc/rcS.d/S??* do [ ! −f "$i" ] && continue; $i start done # End /etc/init.d/rcS Creating the rcS script 197 Creating the functions script Create a new file /etc/init.d/functions containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/functions COL=70 SET_COL="echo −en \\033[${COL}G" NORMAL="echo −en \\033[0;39m" SUCCESS="echo −en \\033[1;32m" FAILURE="echo −en \\033[1;31m" evaluate_retval() { if [ $? = 0 ] then print_status success else print_status failure fi } print_status() { if [ $# = 0 ] then echo "Usage: print_status {success|failure}" exit 1 fi case "$1" in success) $SET_COL echo −n "[ " $SUCCESS echo −n "OK" $NORMAL echo " ]" ;; failure) $SET_COL echo −n "[" $FAILURE echo −n "FAILED" $NORMAL echo "]" ;; esac } loadproc() { if [ $# = 0 ] then Creating the functions script 198 Linux From Scratch echo "Usage: loadproc {program}" exit 1 fi base=`basename $1` pidlist=`pidof −o $$ −o $PPID −o %PPID −x $base` pid="" for apid in $pidlist do if [ −d /proc/$apid ] then pid="$pid $apid" fi done if [ ! −n "$pid" ] then $* evaluate_retval else print_status failure fi } killproc() { if [ $# = 0 ] then echo "Usage: killproc {program} [signal]" exit 1 fi base=`basename $1` if [ "$2" != "" ] then killlevel=$2 else nolevel=1 fi pidlist=`pidof −o $$ −o $PPID −o %PPID −x $base` pid="" for apid in $pidlist do if [ −d /proc/$apid ] then pid="$pid $apid" fi done if [ −n "$pid" ] then if [ "$nolevel" = 1 ] then kill −TERM $pid if ps h $pid >/dev/null 2>&1 then Creating the functions script 199 Linux From Scratch kill −KILL $pid fi ps h $pid >/dev/null 2>&1 if [ $? = 0 ] then print_status failure else rm −f /var/run/$base.pid print_status success fi else kill $killlevel $pid ps h $pid >/dev/null 2>&1 if [ $? = 0 ] then print_status failure else rm −f /var/run/$base.pid print_status success fi fi else print_status failure fi } reloadproc() { if [ $# = 0 ] then echo "Usage: reloadproc {program} [signal]" exit 1 fi base=`basename $1` if [ −n "$2" ] then killlevel=$2 else nolevel=1 fi pidlist=`pidof −o $$ −o $PPID −o %PPID −x $base` pid="" for apid in $pidlist do if [ −d /proc/$apid ] then pid="$pid $apid" fi done if [ −n "$pid" ] then if [ "$nolevel" = 1 ] Creating the functions script 200 Linux From Scratch then kill −SIGHUP $pid evaluate_retval else kill $killlevel $pid evaluate_retval fi else print_status failure fi } statusproc() { if [ $# = 0 ] then echo "Usage: status {program}" return 1 fi pid=`pidof −o $$ −o $PPID −o %PPID −x $1` if [ −n "$pid" ] then echo "$1 running with Process ID $pid" return 0 fi if [ −f /var/run/$1.pid ] then pid=`head −1 /var/run/$1.pid` if [ −n "$pid" ] then echo "$1 not running but /var/run/$1.pid exists" return 1 fi fi } # End /etc/init.d/functions Creating the functions script 201 Creating the checkfs script Create a new file /etc/init.d/checkfs containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/checkfs source /etc/init.d/functions echo −n "Activating swap..." /sbin/swapon −a evaluate_retval if [ −f /fastboot ] then echo "Fast boot, no file system check" else /bin/mount −n −o remount,ro / if [ $? = 0 ] then if [ −f /forcefsck ] then echo −n "/forcefsck exists, forcing " echo "file system check" force="−f" else force="" fi echo "Checking file systems..." /sbin/fsck $force −a −A −C −T if [ $? −gt 1 ] then $FAILURE echo echo −n "fsck failed. Please repair your file " echo "systems manually by running /sbin/fsck" echo "without the −a option" echo echo −n "Please note that the root file system " echo "is currently mounted in read−only mode." echo echo −n "I will start sulogin now. When you " echo "logout I will reboot your system." echo $NORMAL /sbin/sulogin /sbin/reboot −f else print_status success fi else echo −n "Cannot check root file system because it " echo "could not be mounted in read−only mode." Creating the checkfs script 202 Linux From Scratch fi fi # End /etc/init.d/checkfs Creating the checkfs script 203 Creating the halt script Create a new file /etc/init.d/halt containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/halt /sbin/halt −d −f −i −p # End /etc/init.d/halt Creating the halt script 204 Creating the loadkeys script You only need to create this script if you don't have a default 101 keys US keyboard layout. Create a new file /etc/init.d/loadkeys containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/loadkeys source /etc/init.d/functions echo −n "Loading keymap..." /usr/bin/loadkeys −d >/dev/null evaluate_retval # End /etc/init.d/loadkeys Creating the loadkeys script 205 Creating the mountfs script Create a new file /etc/init.d/mountfs containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/mountfs source /etc/init.d/functions echo −n "Remounting root file system in read−write mode..." /bin/mount −n −o remount,rw / evaluate_retval echo > /etc/mtab /bin/mount −f −o remount,rw / /bin/rm −f /fastboot /forcefsck echo −n "Mounting other file systems..." /bin/mount −a evaluate_retval # End /etc/init.d/mountfs Creating the mountfs script 206 Creating the reboot script Create a new file /etc/init.d/reboot containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/reboot echo "System reboot in progress..." /sbin/reboot −d −f −i # End /etc/init.d/reboot Creating the reboot script 207 Creating the sendsignals script Create a new file /etc/init.d/sendsignals containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/sendsignals source /etc/init.d/functions echo −n "Sending all processes the TERM signal..." /sbin/killall5 −15 evaluate_retval echo −n "Sending all processes the KILL signal..." /sbin/killall5 −9 evaluate_retval # End /etc/init.d/sendsignals Creating the sendsignals script 208 Creating the setclock script The following script is only for real use when your hardware clock (also known as BIOS or CMOS clock) isn't set to GMT time. The recommended setup is setting your hardware clock to GMT and have the time converted to localtime using the /etc/localtime symbolic link. But if you run an OS that doesn't understand a clock set to GMT (most notable are Microsoft OS'es) you might want to set your clock to localtime so that the time is properly displayed on those OS'es. This script will reset the kernel time to the hardware clock without converting the time using the /etc/localtime symlink. If you want to use this script on your system even if you have your hardware clock set to GMT, then change the UTC variable below to the value of 1. #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/setclock source /etc/init.d/functions source /etc/sysconfig/clock CLOCKPARAMS="−−hctosys" case "$UTC" in yes|true|1) CLOCKPARAMS="$CLOCKPARAMS −u" ;; esac echo −n "Setting clock..." /sbin/hwclock $CLOCKPARAMS evaluate_retval # End /etc/init.d/setclock Creating the /etc/sysconfig/clock file Create a new file /etc/sysconfig/clock containing the following: # Begin /etc/sysconfig/clock UTC=1 # End /etc/sysconfig/clock If your hardware clock (also known as BIOS or CMOS clock) is not set to GMT time, than set the UTC variable in the /etc/sysconfig/clock file to the value 0 (zero). Creating the setclock script 209 Creating the sysklogd script Create a new file /etc/init.d/sysklogd containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/sysklogd source /etc/init.d/functions case "$1" in start) echo −n "Starting system log daemon..." loadproc /usr/sbin/syslogd −m 0 echo −n "Starting kernel log daemon..." loadproc /usr/sbin/klogd ;; stop) echo −n "Stopping kernel log daemon..." killproc klogd echo −n "Stopping system log daemon..." killproc syslogd ;; reload) echo −n "Reloading system log daemon configuration file..." reloadproc syslogd −1 ;; restart) $0 stop sleep 1 $0 start ;; status) statusproc /usr/sbin/syslogd statusproc /usr/sbin/klogd ;; *) echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|restart|status}" exit 1 ;; esac # End /etc/init.d/sysklogd Creating the sysklogd script 210 Creating the umountfs script Create a new file /etc/init.d/umountfs containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/umountfs source /etc/init.d/functions echo −n "Deactivating swap..." /sbin/swapoff −a evaluate_retval echo −n "Unmounting file systems..." /bin/umount −a −r evaluate_retval # End /etc/init.d/umountfs Creating the umountfs script 211 Setting up symlinks and permissions Give these files the proper permissions and create the necessary symlinks by running the following commands: root:~# cd /etc/init.d root:init.d# chmod 754 rc rcS functions checkfs halt loadkeys mountfs root:init.d# chmod 754 reboot sendsignals setclock sysklogd umountfs root:init.d# cd ../rc0.d root:rc0.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd K90sysklogd root:rc0.d# ln −s ../init.d/sendsignals S80sendsignals root:rc0.d# ln −s ../init.d/umountfs S90umountfs root:rc0.d# ln −s ../init.d/halt S99halt root:rc0.d# cd ../rc6.d root:rc6.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd K90sysklogd root:rc6.d# ln −s ../init.d/sendsignals S80sendsignals root:rc6.d# ln −s ../init.d/umountfs S90umountfs root:rc6.d# ln −s ../init.d/reboot S99reboot root:rc6.d# cd ../rcS.d root:rcS.d# ln −s ../init.d/checkfs S05checkfs root:rcS.d# ln −s ../init.d/mountfs S10mountfs root:rcS.d# ln −s ../init.d/setclock S20setclock root:rcS.d# ln −s ../init.d/loadkeys S30loadkeys root:rcS.d# cd ../rc1.d root:rc1.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd K90sysklogd root:rc1.d# cd ../rc2.d root:rc2.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd S03sysklogd root:rc2.d# cd ../rc3.d root:rc3.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd S03sysklogd root:rc3.d# cd ../rc4.d root:rc4.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd S03sysklogd root:rc4.d# cd ../rc5.d root:rc5.d# ln −s ../init.d/sysklogd S03sysklogd Setting up symlinks and permissions 212 Creating the /etc/fstab file In order for certain programs to be able to determine where certain partitions are supposed to be mounted by default, the /etc/fstab file is used. Create a new file /etc/fstab containing the following: # Begin /etc/fstab /dev/<LFS−partition designation> / ext2 defaults 1 1 /dev/<swap−partition designation> swap swap defaults 0 0 none /proc proc defaults 0 0 # End /etc/fstab Replace <LFS−partition designation> and <swap−partition designation> with the appropriate devices (/dev/hda5 and /dev/hda6 in my case). Creating the /etc/fstab file 213 Chapter 8. Setting up basic networking Chapter 8. Setting up basic networking 214 Introduction This chapter will setup basic networking. Although you might not be connected to a network, Linux software uses network functions anyway. We'll be installing at least the local loopback device and a network card as well if applicable. Also the proper bootscripts will be created so that networking will be enabled during boot time. Introduction 215 Installing network software Installing Netkit−base Install Netkit−base by running the following commands: root:netkit−base−0.17# ./configure −−prefix=/usr root:netkit−base−0.17# make root:netkit−base−0.17# make install root:netkit−base−0.17# cd etc.sample root:etc.sample# cp services protocols /etc There are other files in the etc.sample directory which might be of interest to you. Installing Net−tools Edit the Makefile file and edit the CFLAGS variable if you want to add compiler optimzations. Install Net−tools by running the following commands: root:net−tools−1.57# make root:net−tools−1.57# make install You might have noticed that we don't use the compiler optimizations for this package. The reason is that overriding the CFLAGS variable causes compilation problems. You would have to edit the Makefile file and add the proper values to the CFLAGS variable and then compile the package. If you want to do that it's up to you. I don't think it's worth the trouble though. The programs in this package aren't that big that optimization would have any noticable effect on the performance. Installing network software 216 Creating network boot scripts Creating the /etc/init.d/localnet bootscript Create a new file /etc/init.d/localnet containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/localnet source /etc/init.d/functions source /etc/sysconfig/network case "$1" in start) echo −n "Bringing up the loopback interface..." /sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1 evaluate_retval echo −n "Setting up hostname..." /bin/hostname $HOSTNAME evaluate_retval ;; stop) echo −n "Bringing down the loopback interface..." /sbin/ifconfig lo down evaluate_retval ;; *) echo "Usage: $0: {start|stop}" exit 1 ;; esac # End /etc/init.d/localnet Setting up permissions and symlink Set the proper file permissions and create the necessary symlink by running the following commands: root:~# cd /etc/init.d root:init.d# chmod 754 localnet root:init.d# cd ../rcS.d root:rcS.d# ln −s ../init.d/localnet S03localnet Creating network boot scripts 217 Linux From Scratch Creating the /etc/sysconfig/network file Create a new file /etc/sysconfig/network and put the hostname in it by running: root:~# echo "HOSTNAME=lfs" > /etc/sysconfig/network Replace "lfs" by the name you wish to call your computer. Please not that you should not enter the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) here. That information will be put in the /etc/hosts file later. Creating the /etc/hosts file If you want to configure a network card, you have to decide on the IP−address, FQDN and possible aliases for use in the /etc/hosts file. An example is: <my−IP> myhost.mydomain.org aliases Make sure the IP−address is in the private network IP−address range. Valid ranges are: Class Networks A 10.0.0.0 B 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.0.0 C 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.0 A valid IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for this IP could be www.linuxfromscratch.org If you're not going to use a network card, you still need to come up with a FQDN. This is necessary for programs like Sendmail to operate correctly (in fact; Sendmail won't run when it can't determine the FQDN). If you don't configure a network card, create a new file /etc/hosts containing: # Begin /etc/hosts (no network card version) 127.0.0.1 www.mydomain.com <value of HOSTNAME> localhost # End /etc/hosts (no network card version) If you do configure a network card, create a new file /etc/hosts containing: # Begin /etc/hosts (network card version) 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost Creating the /etc/sysconfig/network file 218 Linux From Scratch 192.168.1.1 www.mydomain.org <value of HOSTNAME> # End /etc/hosts (network card version) Of course, change the 192.168.1.1 and www.mydomain.org to your own liking (or requirements if you are assigned an IP−address by a network/system administrator and you plan on connecting this machine to that network). Creating the /etc/init.d/ethnet script This section only applies if you are going to configure a network card. If you're not, skip this section. Create a new file /etc/init.d/ethnet containing the following: #!/bin/sh # Begin /etc/init.d/ethnet source /etc/init.d/functions source /etc/sysconfig/network case "$1" in start) echo −n "Bringing up the eth0 interface..." /sbin/ifconfig eth0 $IP broadcast $BROADCAST netmask $NETMASK evaluate_retval ;; stop) echo −n "Bringing down the eth0 interface..." /sbin/ifconfig eth0 down evaluate_retval ;; *) echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop}" exit 1 ;; esac # End /etc/init.d/ethnet Editing the /etc/sysconfig/network file Edit the /etc/sysconfig/network file and add the following lines to it. Don't remove the HOSTNAME= line. IP=192.168.1.1 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 BROADCAST=192.168.1.255 Creating the /etc/init.d/ethnet script 219 Linux From Scratch Chagne the IP, NETMASK and BROADCAST values to match your network setup. Setting up permissions and symlink Set the proper file permissions and create the necessary symlink by running the following commands: root:~# cd /etc/init.d root:init.d# chmod 754 ethnet root:init.d# cd ../rc1.d root:rc1.d# ln −s ../init.d/ethnet root:rc1.d# cd ../rc2.d root:rc2.d# ln −s ../init.d/ethnet root:rc2.d# cd ../rc3.d root:rc3.d# ln −s ../init.d/ethnet root:rc3.d# cd ../rc4.d root:rc4.d# ln −s ../init.d/ethnet root:rc4.d# cd ../rc5.d root:rc5.d# ln −s ../init.d/ethnet K80ethnet K80ethnet S10ethnet S10ethnet S10ethnet Setting up permissions and symlink 220 Chapter 9. Making the LFS system bootable Chapter 9. Making the LFS system bootable 221 Introduction This chapter will make LFS bootable. This chapter deals with building a new kernel for our new LFS system and adding the proper entries to LILO so that you can select to boot the LFS system at the LILO: prompt. Introduction 222 Installing a kernel A kernel is the heart of a Linux system. We could use the kernel image from our normal system, but we might as well compile a new kernel from the most recent kernel sources available. Building the kernel involves a few steps: configuring it and compiling it. There are a few ways to configure the kernel. If you don't like the way this book does it, read the README file and find out what your other options are. Run the following commands to build the kernel: root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# root:linux# make mrproper make menuconfig make dep make bzImage make modules make modules_install cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/lfskernel cp System.map /boot Installing a kernel 223 Adding an entry to LILO In order to being able to boot from this partition, we need to update our /etc/lilo.conf file. Add the following lines to lilo.conf: image=/boot/lfskernel label=lfs root=<partition> read−only <partition> must be replaced by your partition's designation (which would be /dev/hda5 in my case). Now update the boot loader by running: root:~# lilo Adding an entry to LILO 224 Testing the system Now that all software has been installed, bootscripts have been created and the local network is setup, it's time for you to reboot your computer and test these new scripts to verify that they actually work. You first want to execute them manually from the /etc/init.d directory so you can fix the most obvious problems (typos, wrong paths and such). When those scripts seem to work just fine manually they should also work during a system start or shutdown. There's only one way to test that. Shutdown your system with shutdown −r now and reboot into LFS. After the reboot you will have a normal login prompt like you have on your normal Linux system (unless you use XDM or some sort of other Display Manger (like KDM − KDE's version of XDM). Testing the system 225 III. Part III − Appendixes Table of Contents A. Package descriptions B. Resources III. Part III − Appendixes 226 Appendix A. Package descriptions Appendix A. Package descriptions 227 Introduction This appendix describes the following aspect of each and every package that is installed in this book: • • What every package contains What every program from a package does The packages are listed in the same order as they are installed in chapter 5 (Intel system) or chapter 11 (PPC systems). Most information about these packages (especially the descriptions of it) come from the man pages from those packages. I'm not going to print the entire man page, just the core elements to make you understand what a program does. If you want to know full details on a program, I suggest you start by reading the complete man page in addition to this appendix. You will also find that certain packages are documented more in depth than others. The reason is that I just happen to know more about certain packages than I know about others. If you have anything to add on the following descriptions, please don't hesitate to email me. This list is going to contain an in depth description of every package installed, but I can't do this on my own. I have had help from various people but more help is needed. Please note that currently only what a package does is described and not why you need to install it. That will be added later. Introduction 228 Glibc Contents The Glibc package contains the GNU C Library. Description The C Library is a collection of commonly used functions in programs. This way a programmer doens't need to create his own functions for every single task. The most common things like writing a string to your screen are already present and at the disposal of the programmer. The C library (actually almost every library) come in two flavours: dynamic ones and static ones. In short when a program uses a static C library, the code from the C library will be copied into the executable file. When a program uses a dynamic library, that executable will not contain the code from the C library, but instead a routine that loads the functions from the library at the time the program is run. This means a significant decrease in the file size of a program. If you don't understand this concept, you better read the documentation that comes with the C Library as it is too complicated to explain here in one or two lines. Glibc 229 Linux kernel Contents The Linux kernel package contains the Linux kernel. Description The Linux kernel is at the core of every Linux system. It's what makes Linux tick. When you turn on your computer and boot a Linux system, the very first piece of Linux software that gets loaded is the kernel. The kernel initializes the system's hardware components such as serial ports, parallel ports, sound cards, network cards, IDE controllers, SCSI controllers and a lot more. In a nutshell the kernel makes the hardware available so that the software can run. Linux kernel 230 Ed Contents The Ed package contains the ed program. Description Ed is a line−oriented text editor. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files. Ed 231 Patch Contents The Patch package contains the patch program. Description The patch program modifies a file according to a patch file. A patch file usually is a list created by the diff program that contains instructions on how an original file needs to be modified. Patch is used a lot for source code patches since it saves time and space. Imagine you have a package that is 1MB in size. The next version of that package only has changes in two files of the first version. You can ship an entirely new package of 1MB or provide a patch file of 1KB which will update the first version to make it identical to the second version. So if you have downloaded the first version already, a patch file can save you a second large download. Patch 232 GCC Contents The GCC package contains compilers, preprocessors and the GNU C++ Library. Description Compiler A compiler translates source code in text format to a format that a computer understands. After a source code file is compiled into an object file, a linker will create an executable file from one or more of these compiler generated object files. Pre−processor A pre−processor pre−processes a source file, such as including the contents of header files into the source file. You generally don't do this yourself to save yourself a lot of time. You just insert a line like #include <filename>. The pre−processor file insert the contents of that file into the source file. That's one of the things a pre−processor does. C++ Library The C++ library is used by C++ programs. The C++ library contains functions that are frequently used in C++ programs. This way the programmer doesn't have to write certain functions (such as writing a string of text to the screen) from scratch every time he creates a program. GCC 233 Bison Contents The Bison package contains the bison program. Description Bison is a parser generator, a replacement for YACC. YACC stands for Yet Another Compiler Compiler. What is Bison then? It is a program that generates a program that analyses the structure of a textfile. Instead of writing the actual program you specify how things should be connected and with those rules a program is constructed that analyses the textfile. There are alot of examples where structure is needed and one of them is the calculator. Given the string : 1+2*3 You can easily come to the result 7. Why ? Because of the structure. You know how to interpretet the string. The computer doesn't know that and Bison is a tool to help it understand by presenting the string in the following way to the compiler: + /\ *1 /\ 23 You start at the bottom of a tree and you come across the numbers 2 and 3 which are joined by the multiplication symbol, so the computers multiplies 2 and 3. The result of that multiplication is remembered and the next thing that the computer sees is the result of 2*3 and the number 1 which are joined by the add symbol. Adding 1 to the previous result makes 7. In calculating the most complex calculations can be broken down in this tree format and the computer just starts at the bottom and works it's way up to the top and comes with the correct answer. Of course, Bison isn't only used for calculators alone. Bison 234 Mawk Contents The Mawk package contains the mawk program. Description gawk Mawk is an interpreter for the AWK Programming Language. The AWK language is useful for manipulation of data files, text retrieval and processing, and for prototyping and experimenting with algorithms. Mawk 235 Findutils Contents The Findutils package contains the find, locate, updatedb and xargs programs. Description Find The find program searches for files in a directory hierarchy which match a certain criteria. If no criteria is given, it lists all files in the current directory and it's subdirectories. Locate Locate scans a database which contain all files and directories on a filesystem. This program lists the files and directories in this database matching a certain criteria. If you're looking for a file this program will scan the database and tell you exactly where the files you requested are located. This only makes sense if your locate database is fairly up−to−date else it will provide you with out−of−date information. Updatedb The updatedb program updates the locate database. It scans the entire file system (including other file system that are currently mounted unless you specify it not to) and puts every directory and file it finds into the database that's used by the locate program which retrieves this information. It's a good practice to update this database once a day so that you are ensured of a database that is up−to−date. Xargs The xargs command applies a command to a list of files. If you need to perform the same command on multiple files, you can create a file that contains all these files (one per line) and use xargs to perform that command on the list. Findutils 236 Ncurses Contents The Ncurses package contains the ncurses, panel, menu and form libraries. It also contains the tic, infocmp, clear, tput, toe and tset programs. Description The libraries The libraries that make up the Ncurses library are used to display text (often in a fancy way) on your screen. An example where ncurses is used is in the kernel's "make menuconfig" process. The libraries contain routines to create panels, menu's, form and general text display routines. Tic Tic is the terminfo entry−description compiler. The program translates a terminfo file from source format into the binary format for use with the ncurses library routines. Terminfo files contain information about the capabilities of your terminal. Infocmp The infocmp program can be used to compare a binary terminfo entry with other terminfo entries, rewrite a terminfo description to take advantage of the use= terminfo field, or print out a terminfo description from the binary file (term) in a variety of formats (the opposite of what tic does). clear The clear program clears your screen if this is possible. It looks in the environment for the terminal type and then in the terminfo database to figure out how to clear the screen. tput The tput program uses the terminfo database to make the values of terminal−dependent capabilities and information available to the shell, to initialize or reset the terminal, or return the long name of the requested terminal type. Ncurses 237 Linux From Scratch toe The toe program lists all available terminal types by primary name with descriptions. tset The Tset program initializes terminals so they can be used, but it's not widely used anymore. It's provided for 4.4BSD compatibility. toe 238 Less Contents The Less package contains the less program Description The less program is a file pager (or text viewer). It displays the contents of a file with the ability to scroll. Less is an improvement on the common pager called "more". Less has the ability to scroll backwards through files as well and it doesn't need to read the entire file when it starts, which makes it faster when you are reading large files. Less 239 Groff Contents The Groff packages contains the addftinfo, afmtodit, eqn, grodvi, groff, grog, grohtml, grolj4, grops, grotty, hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, neqn, nroff, pfbtops, pic, psbb, refer, soelim, tbl, tfmtodit and troff programs. Description addftinfo addftinfo reads a troff font file and adds some additional font−metric information that is used by the groff system. afmtodit afmtodit creates a font file for use with groff and grops. eqn eqn compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff. grodvi grodvi is a driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format. groff groff is a front−end to the groff document formatting system. Normally it runs the troff program and a postprocessor appropriate for the selected device. grog grog reads files and guesses which of the groff options −e, −man, −me, −mm, −ms, −p, −s, and −t are required for printing files, and prints the groff command including those options on the standard output. Groff 240 Linux From Scratch grohtml grohtml translates the output of GNU troff to html grolj4 grolj4 is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for an HP Laserjet 4 printer. grops grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript. grotty grotty translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for typewriter−like devices. hpftodit hpftodit creates a font file for use with groff −Tlj4 from an HP tagged font metric file. indxbib indxbib makes an inverted index for the bibliographic databases a specified file for use with refer, lookbib, and lkbib. lkbib lkbib searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified keys and prints any references found on the standard output. lookbib lookbib prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is not a terminal), reads from the standard input a line containing a set of keywords, searches the bibliographic databases in a specified file for references containing those keywords, prints any references found on the standard output, and repeats this process until the end of input. grohtml 241 Linux From Scratch neqn It is currently not known what neqn is and what it does. nroff The nroff script emulates the nroff command using groff. pfbtops pfbtops translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII. pic pic compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input files into commands that are understood by TeX or troff. psbb psbb reads a file which should be a PostScript document conforming to the Document Structuring conventions and looks for a %%BoundingBox comment. refer refer copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands about how citations are to be processed. soelim soelim reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of file. tbl tbl compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood by troff. neqn 242 Linux From Scratch tfmtodit tfmtodit creates a font file for use with groff −Tdvi troff troff is highly compatible with Unix troff. Usually it should be invoked using the groff command, which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate options. tfmtodit 243 Man Contents The Man package contains the man, apropos whatis and makewhatis programs. Description man man formats and displays the on−line manual pages. apropos apropos searches a set of database files containing short descriptions of system commands for keywords and displays the result on the standard output. whatis whatis searches a set of database files containing short descriptions of system commands for keywords and displays the result on the standard output. Only complete word matches are displayed. makewhatis makewhatis reads all the manual pages contained in given sections of manpath or the preformatted pages contained in the given sections of catpath. For each page, it writes a line in the whatis database; each line consists of the name of the page and a short description, separated by a dash. The description is extracted using the content of the NAME section of the manual page. Man 244 Perl Contents The Perl package contains Perl − Practical Extraction and Report Language Description Perl combines the features and capabilities of C, awk, sed and sh into one powerful programming language. Perl 245 M4 Contents The M4 package contains the M4 processor Description M4 is a macro processor. It copies input to output expanding macros as it goes. Macros are either builtin or user−defined and can take any number of arguments. Besides just doing macro expansion m4 has builtin functions for including named files, running UNIX commands, doing integer arithmetic, manipulating text in various ways, recursion, etc. M4 can be used either as a front−end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its own right. M4 246 Texinfo Contents The Texinfo package contains the info, install−info, makeinfo, texi2dvi and texindex programs Description info The info program reads Info documents, usually contained in your /usr/doc/info directory. Info documents are like man(ual) pages, but they tend to be more in depth than just explaining the options to a program. install−info The install−info program updates the info entries. When you run the info program a list with available topics (ie: available info documents) will be presented. The install−info program is used to maintain this list of available topics. If you decice to remove info files manually, you need to delete the topic in the index file as well. This program is used for that. It also works the other way around when you add info documents. makeinfo The makeinfo program translates Texinfo source documents into various formats. Available formats are: info files, plain text and HTML. texi2dvi The texi2dvi program prints Texinfo documents texindex The texindex program is used to sort Texinfo index files. Texinfo 247 Autoconf Contents The Autoconf package contains the autoconf, autoheader, autoreconf, autoscan, autoupdate and ifnames programs Description autoconf Autoconf is a tool for producing shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of UNIX−like systems. The configuration scripts produced by Autoconf are independent of Autoconf when they are run, so their users do not need to have Autoconf. autoheader The autoheader program can create a template file of C #define statements for configure to use autoreconf If you have a lot of Autoconf−generated configure scripts, the autoreconf program can save you some work. It runs autoconf (and autoheader, where appropriate) repeatedly to remake the Autoconf configure scripts and configuration header templates in the directory tree rooted at the current directory. autoscan The autoscan program can help you create a configure.in file for a software package. autoscan examines source files in the directory tree rooted at a directory given as a command line argument, or the current directory if none is given. It searches the source files for common portability problems and creates a file configure.scan which is a preliminary configure.in for that package. autoupdate The autoupdate program updates a configure.in file that calls Autoconf macros by their old names to use the current macro names. Autoconf 248 Linux From Scratch ifnames ifnames can help when writing a configure.in for a software package. It prints the identifiers that the package already uses in C preprocessor conditionals. If a package has already been set up to have some portability, this program can help you figure out what its configure needs to check for. It may help fill in some gaps in a configure.in generated by autoscan. ifnames 249 Automake Contents The Automake package contains the aclocal and automake programs Description aclocal Automake includes a number of Autoconf macros which can be used in your package; some of them are actually required by Automake in certain situations. These macros must be defined in your aclocal.m4; otherwise they will not be seen by autoconf. The aclocal program will automatically generate aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of configure.in. This provides a convenient way to get Automake−provided macros, without having to search around. Also, the aclocal mechanism is extensible for use by other packages. automake To create all the Makefile.in's for a package, run the automake program in the top level directory, with no arguments. automake will automatically find each appropriate Makefile.am (by scanning configure.in) and generate the corresponding Makefile.in. Automake 250 Bash Contents The Bash package contains the bash program Description Bash is the Bourne−Again SHell, which is a widely used command interpreter on Unix systems. Bash is a program that reads from standard input, the keyboard. You type something and the program will evaluate what you have typed and do something with it, like running a program. Bash 251 Flex Contents The Flex package contains the flex program Description Flex is a tool for generating programs which regognize patterns in text. Pattern recognition is very useful in many applications. You set up rules what to look for and flex will make a program that looks for those patterns. The reason people use flex is that it is much easier to set up rules for what to look for than to write the actual program that finds the text. Flex 252 Binutils Description The Binutils package contains the ld, as, ar, nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, size, strings, strip, c++filt, addr2line and nlmconv programs Description ld ld combines a number of object and archive files, relocates their data and ties up symbol references. Often the last step in building a new compiled program to run is a call to ld. as as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler gcc for use by the linker ld. ar The ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives. An archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files (called members of the archive). nm nm lists the symbols from object files. objcopy objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another. objcopy uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object files. It can write the destination object file in a format different from that of the source object file. objdump objdump displays information about one or more object files. The options control what particular information to display. This information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their program to compile and work. Binutils 253 Linux From Scratch ranlib ranlib generates an index to the contents of an archive, and stores it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a member of an archive that is a relocatable object file. size size lists the section sizes −−and the total size−− for each of the object files objfile in its argument list. By default, one line of output is generated for each object file or each module in an archive. strings For each file given, strings prints the printable character sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number specified with an option to the program) and are followed by an unprintable character. By default, it only prints the strings from the initialized and loaded sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the strings from the whole file. strings is mainly useful for determining the contents of non−text files. strip strip discards all or specific symbols from object files. The list of object files may include archives. At least one object file must be given. strip modifies the files named in its argument, rather than writing modified copies under different names. c++filt The C++ language provides function overloading, which means that you can write many functions with the same name (providing each takes parameters of different types). All C++ function names are encoded into a low−level assembly label (this process is known as mangling). The c++filt program does the inverse mapping: it decodes (demangles) low−level names into user−level names so that the linker can keep these overloaded functions from clashing. addr2line addr2line translates program addresses into file names and line numbers. Given an address and an executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to figure out which file name and line number are associated with a given address. ranlib 254 Linux From Scratch nlmconv nlmconv converts relocatable object files into the NetWare Loadable Module files, optionally reading header files for NLM header information. nlmconv 255 Bzip2 Contents The Bzip2 packages contains the bzip2, bunzip2, bzcat and bzip2recover programs. Description Bzip2 bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows−Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78−based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. Bunzip2 Bunzip2 decompresses files that are compressed with bzip2. bzcat bzcat (or bzip2 −dc) decompresses all specified files to the standard output. bzip2recover bzip2recover recovers data from damaged bzip2 files. Bzip2 256 Diffutils Contents The Diffutils packagec contains the cmp, diff, diff3 and sdiff programs. Description cmp and diff cmp and diff both compare two files and report their differences. Both programs have extra options which compare files in different situations. diff3 The difference between diff and diff3 is that diff comprares 2 files, diff3 compares 3 files. sdiff sdiff merges two two files and interactively outputs the results. Diffutils 257 E2fsprogs Contents The e2fsprogs package contains the chattr, lsattr, uuidgen, badblocks, debugfs, dumpe2fs, e2fsck, e2label, fsck, fsck.ext2, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mklost+found and tune2fs programs. Description chattr chattr changes the file attributes on a Linux second extended file system. lsattr lsattr lists the file attributes on a second extended file system. uuidgen The uuidgen program creates a new universally unique identifier (UUID) using the libuuid library. The new UUID can reasonably be considered unique among all UUIDs created on the local system, and among UUIDs created on other systems in the past and in the future. badblocks badblocks is used to search for bad blocks on a device (usually a disk partition). debugfs The debugfs program is a file system debugger. It can be used to examine and change the state of an ext2 file system. dumpe2fs dumpe2fs prints the super block and blocks group information for the filesystem present on a specified device. E2fsprogs 258 Linux From Scratch e2fsck and fsck.ext2 e2fsck is used to check a Linux second extended file system. fsck.ext2 does the same as e2fsck. e2label e2label will display or change the filesystem label on the ext2 filesystem located on the specified device. fsck fsck is used to check and optionally repair a Linux file system. mke2fs and mkfs.ext2 mke2fs is used to create a Linux second extended file system on a device (usually a disk partition). mkfs.ext2 does the same as mke2fs. mklost+found mklost+found is used to create a lost+found directory in the current working directory on a Linux second extended file system. mklost+found pre−allocates disk blocks to the directory to make it usable by e2fsck. tune2fs tune2fs adjusts tunable filesystem parameters on a Linux second extended filesystem. e2fsck and fsck.ext2 259 File Contents The File package contains the file program. Description File tests each specified file in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. File 260 Fileutils Contents The Fileutils package contains the chgrp, chmod, chown, cp, dd, df, dir, dircolors, du, install, ln, ls, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, rm, rmdir, sync, touch and vdir programs. Description chgrp chgrp changes the group ownership of each given file to the named group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID. chmod chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions. chown chown changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file. cp cp copies files from one place to another. dd dd copies a file (from the standard input to the standard output, by default) with a user−selectable blocksize, while optionally performing conversions on it. df df displays the amount of disk space available on the filesystem containing each file name argument. If no file name is given, the space available on all currently mounted filesystems is shown. Fileutils 261 Linux From Scratch ls, dir and vdir dir and vdir are versions of ls with different default output formats. These programs list each given file or directory name. Directory contents are sorted alphabetically. For ls, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically, if the standard output is a terminal; otherwise they are listed one per line. For dir, files are by default listed in columns, sorted vertically. For vdir, files are by default listed in long format. dircolors dircolors outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable. The LS_COLOR variable is use to change the default color scheme used by ls and related utilities. du du displays the amount of disk space used by each argument and for each subdirectory of directory arguments. install install copies files and sets their permission modes and, if possible, their owner and group. ln ln makes hard or soft (symbolic) links between files. mkdir mkdir creates directories with a given name. mkfifo mkfifo creates a FIFO with each given name. mknod mknod creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file with the given file name. ls, dir and vdir 262 Linux From Scratch mv mv moves files from one directory to another or renames files, depending on the arguments given to mv. rm rm removes files or directories. rmdir rmdir removes directories, if they are empty. sync sync forces changed blocks to disk and updates the super block. touch touch changes the access and modification times of each given file to the current time. Files that do not exist are created empty. mv 263 Gettext Contents The gettext package contains the gettext, gettextize, msgcmp, msgcomm, msgfmt, msgmerge, msgunfmt and xgettext programs. Description gettext The gettext package is used for internationalization (also known as i18n) and for localization (also known as l10n). Programs can be compiled with Native Language Support (NLS) which enable them to output messages in your native language rather than in the default English languge. Gettext 264 Grep Contents The grep package contains the egrep, fgrep and grep programs. Description egrep egrep prints lines from files matching an extended regular expression pattern. fgrep fgrep prints lines from files matching a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which is to be matched. grep grep prints lines from files matching a basic regular expression pattern. Grep 265 Gzip Contents The Gzip package contains the gunzip, gzexe, gzip, zcat, zcmp, zdiff, zforece, zgrep, zmore and znew programs. Description gunzip gunzip decompresses files that are compressed with gzip. gzexe gzexe allows you to compress executables in place and have them automatically uncompress and execute when you run them (at a penalty in performance). gzip gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel−Ziv coding (LZ77). zcat zcat uncompresses either a list of files on the command line or its standard input and writes the uncompressed data on standard output zcmp zcmp invokes the cmp program on compressed files. zdiff zdiff invokes the diff program on compressed files. Gzip 266 Linux From Scratch zforce zforce forces a .gz extension on all gzip files so that gzip will not compress them twice. This can be useful for files with names truncated after a file transfer. zgrep zgrep invokes the grep program on compressed files. zmore Zmore is a filter which allows examination of compressed or plain text files one screenful at a time on a soft−copy terminal (similar to the more program). znew Znew recompresses files from .Z (compress) format to .gz (gzip) format. zforce 267 Ld.so Contents From the Ld.so package we're using the ldconfig and ldd programs. Description ldconfig ldconfig creates the necessary links and cache (for use by the run−time linker, ld.so) to the most recent shared libraries found in the directories specified on the command line, in the file /etc/ld.so.conf, and in the trusted directories (/usr/lib and /lib). ldconfig checks the header and file names of the libraries it encounters when determining which versions should have their links updated. ldd ldd prints the shared libraries required by each program or shared library specified on the command line. Ld.so 268 Libtool Contents The Libtool package contains the libtool and libtoolize programs. It also contains the ltdl library. Description libtool Libtool provides generalized library−building support services. libtoolize libtoolize provides a standard way to add libtool support to your package. ltdl library Libtool provides a small library, called `libltdl', that aims at hiding the various difficulties of dlopening libraries from programmers. Libtool 269 Bin86 Contents The Bin86 contains the as86, as86_encap, ld86, objdump86, nm86 and size86 programs. Description as86 as86 is an assembler for the 8086...80386 processors. as86_encap as86_encap is a shell script to call as86 and convert the created binary into a C file prog.v to be included in or linked with programs like boot block installers. ld86 ld86 understands only the object files produced by the as86 assembler, it can link them into either an impure or a separate I&D executable. objdump86 No description available. nm86 No description available. size86 No description available. Bin86 270 Lilo Contents The Lilo package contains the lilo program. Description lilo installs the Linux boot loader which is used to start a Linux system. Lilo 271 Make Contents The Make package contains the make program. Description make determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands to recompile them. Make 272 Shellutils Contents The Shellutils package contains the basename, chroot, date, dirname, echo, env, expr, factor, false, groups, hostid, hostname, id, logname, nice, nohup, pathchk, pinky, printenv, printf, pwd, seq, sleep, stty, su, tee, test, true, tty, uname, uptime, users, who, whoami and yes programs. Description basename basename strips directory and suffixes from filenames. chroot chroot runs a command or interactive shell with special root directory. date date displays the current time in a specified format, or sets the system date. dirname dirname strips non−directory suffixes from file name. echo echo displays a line of text. env env runs a program in a modified environment. expr expr evaluates expressions. Shellutils 273 Linux From Scratch factor factor prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers. false false always exits with a status code indicating failure. groups groups prints the groups a user is in. hostid hostid prints the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) for the current host. hostname hostname sets or prints the name of the current host system id id prints the real and effective UIDs and GIDs of a user or the current user. logname logname prints the current user's login name. nice nice runs a program with modified scheduling priority. nohup nohup runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non−tty factor 274 Linux From Scratch pathchk pathchk checks whether file names are valid or portable. pinky pinky is a lightweight finger utility which retrieves information about a certain user printenv printenv prints all or part of the environment. printf printf formats and print data (the same as the printf C function). pwd pwd prints the name of the current/working directory seq seq prints numbers in a certain range with a certain increment. sleep sleep delays for a specified amount of time. stty stty changes and prints terminal line settings. su su runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs pathchk 275 Linux From Scratch tee tee reads from standard input and write to standard output and files. test test checks file types and compares values. true True always exitx with a status code indicating success. tty tty prints the file name of the terminal connected to standard input. uname uname prints system information. uptime uptime tells how long the system has been running. users users prints the user names of users currently logged in to the current host. who who shows who is logged on. whoami whoami prints your effective userid. tee 276 Linux From Scratch yes yes outputs a string repeatedly until killed. yes 277 Shadow Password Suite Contents The Shadow Password Suite contains the chage, chfn, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, lastlog, login, newgrp, passwd, sg, su, chpasswd, dpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, logoutd, mkpasswd, newusers, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, useradd, userdel, usermod and vipw programs. Description chage chage changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change. chfn chfn changes user fullname, office number, office extension, and home phone number information for a user's account. chsh chsh changes the user login shell. expiry It's currently unknown what this program is for. faillog faillog formats the contents of the failure log,/var/log/faillog, and maintains failure counts and limits. gpasswd gpasswd is used to administer the /etc/group file Shadow Password Suite 278 Linux From Scratch lastlog lastlog formats and prints the contents of the last login log, /var/log/lastlog. The login−name, port, and last login time will be printed. login login is used to establish a new session with the system. newgrp newgrp is used to change the current group ID during a login session. passwd passwd changes passwords for user and group accounts. sg sg executes command as a different group ID. su Change the effective user id and group id to that of a user. This replaces the su programs that's installed from the Shellutils package. chpasswd chpasswd reads a file of user name and password pairs from standard input and uses this information to update a group of existing users. dpasswd dpasswd adds, deletes, and updates dialup passwords for user login shells. lastlog 279 Linux From Scratch groupadd The groupadd command creates a new group account using the values specified on the command line and the default values from the system. groupdel The groupdel command modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to group. groupmod The groupmod command modifies the system account files to reflect the changes that are specified on the command line. grpck grpck verifies the integrity of the system authentication information. grpconv grpunconv converts to shadow group files from normal group files. grpunconv grpunconv converts from shadow group files to normal group files. logoutd logoutd enforces the login time and port restrictions specified in /etc/porttime. mkpasswd mkpasswd reads a file in the format given by the flags and converts it to the corresponding database file format. groupadd 280 Linux From Scratch newusers newusers reads a file of user name and cleartext password pairs and uses this information to update a group of existing users or to create new users. pwck pwck verifies the integrity of the system authentication information. pwconv pwconv converts to shadow passwd files from normal passwd files. pwunconv pwunconv converts from shadow passwd files to normal files. useradd useradd creates a new user or update default new user information. userdel userdel modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to a specified login name. usermod usermod modifies the system account files to reflect the changes that are specified on the command line. vipw and vigr vipw and vigr will edit the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group, respectively. With the −s flag, they will edit the shadow versions of those files, /etc/shadow and /etc/gshadow, respectively. newusers 281 Modutils Contents The Modutils package contains the depmod, genksyms, insmod, insmod_ksymoops_clean, kerneld, kernelversion, ksyms, lsmod, modinfo, modprobe and rmmod programs. Description depmod depmod handles dependency descriptions for loadable kernel modules. genksyms genksyms reads (on standard input) the output from gcc −E source.c and generates a file containing version information. insmod insmod installs a loadable module in the running kernel. insmod_ksymoops_clean insmod_ksymoops_clean deletes saved ksyms and modules not accessed in 2 days. kerneld kerneld performs kernel action in user space (such as on−demand loading of modules) kernelversion kernelversion reports the major version of the running kernel. ksyms ksyms displays exported kernel symbols. Modutils 282 Linux From Scratch lsmod lsmod shows information about all loaded modules. modinfo modinfo examines an object file associated with a kernel module and displays any information that it can glean. modprobe Modprobe uses a Makefile−like dependency file, created by depmod, to automatically load the relevant module(s) from the set of modules available in predefined directory trees. rmmod rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel. lsmod 283 Procinfo Contents The Procinfo package contains the procinfo program. Description procinfo gathers some system data from the /proc directory and prints it nicely formatted on the standard output device. Procinfo 284 Procps Contents The Procps package contains the free, kill, oldps, ps, skill, snice, sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w and watch programs. Description free free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the shared memory and buffers used by the kernel. kill kills sends signals to processes. oldps and ps ps gives a snapshot of the current processes. skill skill sends signals to process matching a criteria. snice snice changes the scheduling priority for process matching a criteria. sysctl sysctl modifies kernel parameters at runtime. tload tload prints a graph of the current system load average to the specified tty (or the tty of the tload process if none is specified). Procps 285 Linux From Scratch top top provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real time. uptime uptime gives a one line display of the following information: the current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes. vmstat vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity. w w displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes. watch watch runs command repeatedly, displaying its output (the first screenfull). top 286 Vim Contents The Vim package contains the ctags, etags, ex, gview, gvim, rgview, rgvim, rview, rvim, view, vim, vimtutor and xxd programs. Description ctags ctags generate tag files for source code. etags etags does the same as ctags but it can generate cross reference files which list information about the various source objects found in a set of lanugage files. ex ex starts vim in Ex mode. gview gview is the GUI version of view. gvim gvim is the GUI version of vim. rgview rgview is teh GUI version of rview. rgvim rgvim is the GUI version of rvim. Vim 287 Linux From Scratch rview rview is a restricted version of view. No shell commands can be started and Vim can't be suspended. rvim rvim is the restricted version of vim. No shell commands can be started and Vim can't be suspended. view view starts vim in read−only mode. vim vim starts vim in the normal, default way. vimtutor vimtutor starts the Vim tutor. xxd xxd makes a hexdump or does the reverse. rview 288 Psmisc Contents The Psmisc package contains the fuser, killall and pstree programs. Description fuser fuser displays the PIDs of processes using the specified files or file systems. killall killall sends a signal to all processes running any of the specified commands. pstree pstree shows running processes as a tree. Psmisc 289 Sed Contents The Sed package contains the sed program. Description sed is a stream editor. A stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline). Sed 290 Sysklogd Contents The Sysklogd package contains the klogd and syslogd programs. Description klogd klogd is a system daemon which intercepts and logs Linux kernel messages. syslogd Syslogd provides a kind of logging that many modern programs use.Every logged message contains at least a time and a hostname field, normally a program name field, too, but that depends on how trusty the logging program is. Sysklogd 291 Sysvinit Contents The Sysvinit package contains the pidof, last, lastb, mesg, utmpdump, wall, halt, init, killall5, poweroff, reboot, runlevel, shutdown, sulogin and telinit programs. Description pidof Pidof finds the process id's (pids) of the named programs and prints those id's on standard output. last last searches back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the file designated by the −f flag) and displays a list of all users logged in (and out) since that file was created. lastb lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts. mesg Mesg controls the access to your terminal by others. It's typically used to allow or disallow other users to write to your terminal. utmpdump utmpdumps prints the content of a file (usually /var/run/utmp) on standard output in a user friendly format. wall Wall sends a message to everybody logged in with their mesg permission set to yes. Sysvinit 292 Linux From Scratch halt Halt notes that the system is being brought down in the file /var/log/wtmp, and then either tells the kernel to halt, reboot or poweroff the system. If halt or reboot is called when the system is not in runlevel 0 or 6, shutdown will be invoked instead (with the flag −h or −r). init Init is the parent of all processes. Its primary role is to create processes from a script stored in the file /etc/inittab. This file usually has entries which cause init to spawn gettys on each line that users can log in. It also controls autonomous processes required by any particular system. killall5 killall5 is the SystemV killall command. It sends a signal to all processes except the processes in its own session, so it won't kill the shell that is running the script it was called from. poweroff poweroff is equivalent to shutdown −h −p now. It halts the computer and switches off the computer (when using an APM compliant BIOS and APM is enabled in the kernel). reboot reboot is equivalent to shutdown −r now. It reboots the computer. runlevel Runlevel reads the system utmp file (typically /var/run/utmp) to locate the runlevel record, and then prints the previous and current system runlevel on its standard output, separated by a single space. shutdown shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged−in users are notified that the system is going down, and login is blocked. halt 293 Linux From Scratch sulogin sulogin is invoked by init when the system goes into single user mode (this is done through an entry in /etc/inittab). Init also tries to execute sulogin when it is passed the b flag from the bootmonitor (eg, LILO). telinit telinit sends appropriate signals to init, telling it which runlevel to change to. sulogin 294 Tar Contents The tar package contains the tar and rmt programs. Description tar tar is an archiving program designed to store and extract files from an archive file known as a tarfile. rmt rmt is a program used by the remote dump and restore programs in manipulating a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess communication connection. Tar 295 Textutils Contents The Textutils package contains the cat, cksum, comm, split, cut, expand, fmt, fold, head, join, md5sum, nl, od, paste, pr, ptx, sort, split, sum, tac, tail, tr, tsort, unexpand, uniq and wc programs. Description cat cat concatenates file(s) or standard input to standard output. cksum cksum prints CRC checksum and byte counts of each specified file. comm comm compares two sorted files line by line. csplit cplit outputs pieces of a file separated by (a) pattern(s) to files xx01, xx02, ..., and outputs byte counts of each piece to standard output. cut cut prints selected parts of lines from specified files to standard output. expand expand converts tabs in files to spaces, writing to standard output. fmt fmt reformats each paragraph in the specified file(s), writing to standard output. Textutils 296 Linux From Scratch fold fold wraps input lines in each specified file (standard input by default), writing to standard output. head Print first xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. join join joins lines of two files on a common field. md5sum md5sum prints or checks MD5 checksums. nl nl writes each specified file to standard output, with line numbers added. od od writes an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of a specified file to standard output. paste paste writes lines consisting of the sequentially corresponding lines from each specified file, separated by TABs, to standard output. pr pr paginates or columnates files for printing. fold 297 Linux From Scratch ptx ptx produces a permuted index of file contents. sort sort writes sorted concatenation of files to standard output. split split outputs fixed−size pieces of an input file to PREFIXaa, PREFIXab, ... sum sum prints checksum and block counts for each specified file. tac tac writes each specified file to standard output, last line first. tail tail print the last xx (10 by default) lines of each specified file to standard output. tr tr translates, squeezes, and/or deletes characters from standard input, writing to standard output. tsort tsort writes totally ordered lists consistent with the partial ordering in specified files. unexpand unexpand converts spaces in each file to tabs, writing to standard output. ptx 298 Linux From Scratch uniq uniq discards all but one of successive identical lines from files or standard input and writes to files or standard output. wc wc prints line, word, and byte counts for each specified file, and a total line if more than one file is specified. uniq 299 Util Linux Contents The Util−linux package contains the arch, dmesg, kill, more, mount, umount, agetty, blockdev, cfdisk, ctrlaltdel, elvtune, fdisk, fsck.minix, hwclock, kbdrate, losetup, mkfs, mkfs.bfs, mkfs.minix, mkswap, sfdisk, swapoff, swapon, cal, chkdupexe, col, colcrt, colrm, column, cytune, ddate, fdformat, getopt, hexdump, ipcrm, ipcs, logger, look, mcookie, namei, rename, renice, rev, script, setfdprm, setsid, setterm, ul, whereis, write, ramsize, rdev, readprofile, rootflags, swapdev, tunelp and vidmode programs. Description arch arch prints the machine architecture. dmesg dmesg is used to examine or control the kernel ring buffer (boot messages from the kernel). kill kill sends a specified signal to the specified process. more more is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. mount mount mounts a filesystem from a device to a directory (mount point). umount umount unmounts a mounted filesystem. Util Linux 300 Linux From Scratch agetty agetty opens a tty port, prompts for a login name and invokes the /bin/login command. blockdev No description available. cfdisk cfdisk is an libncurses based disk partition table manipulator. ctrlaltdel ctrlaltdel sets the function of the CTRL+ALT+DEL key combination (hard or soft reset). elvtune elvtune allows to tune the I/O elevator per blockdevice queue basis. fdisk fdisk is a disk partition table manipulator. fsck.minix fsck.minix performs a consistency check for the Linux MINIX filesystem. hwclock hwclock queries and sets the hardware clock (Also called the RTC or BIOS clock). kbdrate kbdrate resets the keyboard repeat rate and delay time. agetty 301 Linux From Scratch losetup losetup sets up and controls loop devices. mkfs mkfs builds a Linux filesystem on a device, usually a harddisk partition. mkfs.bfs mkfs.bfs creates a SCO bfs file system on a device, usually a harddisk partition. mkfs.minix mkfs.minix creates a Linux MINIX filesystem on a device, usually a harddisk partition. mkswap mkswap sets up a Linux swap area on a device or in a file. sfdisk sfdisk is a disk partition table manipulator. swapoff swapoff disables devices and files for paging an swapping. swapon swapon enables devices and files for paging and swapping. cal cal displays a simple calender. losetup 302 Linux From Scratch chkdupexe chkdupexe finds duplicate executables. col col filters reverse line feeds from input. colcrt colcrt filters nroff output for CRT previewing. colrm colrm removes columns from a file. column column columnates lists. cytune cytune queries and modifies the interruption threshold for the Cyclades driver. ddate ddate converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates. fdformat fdformat low−level formats a floppy disk. getopt getops parses command options the same way as the getopt C command. chkdupexe 303 Linux From Scratch hexdump hexdump displays specified files, or standard input, in a user specified format (ascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal). ipcrm ipcrm removes a specified resource. ipcs ipcs provides information on ipc facilities. logger logger makes entries in the system log. look look displays lines beginning with a given string. mcookie mcookie generates magic cookies for xauth. namei namei follows a pathname until a terminal point is found. rename rename renames files. hexdump 304 Linux From Scratch renice renice alters priority of running processes. rev rev reverses lines of a file. script script makes typescript of terminal session. setfdprm setfdprm sets user−provides floppy disk parameters. setsid setsid runs programs in a new session. setterm setterm sets terminal attributes. ul ul reads a file and translates occurences of underscores to the sequence which indicates underlining for the terminal in use. whereis whereis locates a binary, source and manual page for a command. renice 305 Linux From Scratch write write sends a message to another user. ramsize ramsize queries and sets RAM disk size. rdev rdev queries and sets image root device, swap device, RAM disk size, or video mode. readprofile readprofile reads kernel profiling information. rootflags rootflags queries and sets extra information used when mounting root. swapdev swapdev queries and sets swap device. tunelp tunelp sets various paramters for the lp device. vidmode vidmode queries and sets the video mode. write 306 Console−tools Contents The Console−tools package contains the charset, chvt, consolechars, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, fix_bs_and_del, font2psf, getkeycodes, kbd_mode, loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, mk_modmap, openvt, psfaddtable, psfgettable, psfstriptable, resizecons, saveunimap, screendump, setfont, setkeycodes, setleds, setmetamode, setvesablank, showcfont, showkey, splitfont, unicode_start, unicode_stop, vcstime, vt−is−URF8, writevt Description charset charset sets an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charsets slots. chvt chvt changes foreground virtual terminal. codepage No description available. consolechars consolechars loads EGA/VGA console screen fonts, screen font maps and/or application−charset maps. deallocvt deallocvt deallocates unused virtual terminals. dumpkeys dumpkeys dumps keyboard translation tables. Console−tools 307 Linux From Scratch fgconsole fgconsole prints the number of the active virtual terminal. fix_bs_and_del No description available. font2psf No description available. getkeycodes getkeycodes prints the kernel scancode−to−keycode mapping table. kbd_mode kbd_mode reports or sets the keyboard mode. loadkeys loadkeys loads keyboard translation tables. loadunimap No description available. mapscrn No description available. mk_modmap No description available. fgconsole 308 Linux From Scratch openvt openvt starts a program on a new virtual terminal. psfaddtable psfaddtable adds a Unicode character table to a console font. psfgettable psfgettable extracts the embedded Unicode character table from a console font. psfstriptable psfstriptable removes the embedded Unicode character table from a console font. resizecons resizecons changes the kernel idea of the console size. saveunimap No description available. screendump No description available. setfont No description available. setkeycodes setkeycodes loads kernel scancode−to−keycode mapping table entries. openvt 309 Linux From Scratch setleds setleds sets the keyboard leds. setmetamode setmetamode defines the keyboard meta key handling. setvesablank No description available. showcfont showcfont displays all character in the current screenfont. showkey showkey examines the scancodes and keycodes sent by the keyboard. splitfont No description available. unicode_start unicode_start puts the console in Unicode mode. unicode_stop No description available. vcstime No description available. setleds 310 Linux From Scratch vt−is−UTF8 vt−is−UTF8 checks whether the current virtual terminal is in UTF8− or byte−mode. writevt No description available. vt−is−UTF8 311 Console−data Contents The console−data package contains the data files that are used and needed by the console−tools package. Console−data 312 Man−pages Contents The Man−pages package contains various manual pages that don't come with the packages. Description Examples of provided manual pages are the manual pages describing all the C and C++ functions, few important /dev/ files and more. Man−pages 313 Appendix B. Resources Appendix B. Resources 314 Introduction A list of books, HOWTOs and other documents you might find useful to download or buy follows. This list is just a small list to start with. We hope to be able to expand this list in time as we come across more useful documents or books. Introduction 315 Books • • Linux Network Administrator's Guide published by O'Reilly. ISBN: 1−56502−087−2 Running Linux published by O'Reilly. ISBN: 1−56592−151−8 Books 316 HOWTOs and Guides All of the following HOWTOs can be downloaded from the Linux Documentation Project site at http://www.linuxdoc.org • • Linux Network Administrator's Guide Powerup2Bash−HOWTO HOWTOs and Guides 317 Other • The various man and info pages that come with the packages Other 318 ...
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