Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with...

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Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science The Need for Psychological Science Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses The Need for Psychological Science Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do The Need for Psychological Science Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence The Need for Psychological Science Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory The Need for Psychological Science The Need for Psychological Science Operational Definition
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a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example- intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures The Need for Psychological Science Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances usually with different participants in different situations Description Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation Description Case Study Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all Description Survey technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Description False Consensus Effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study Description Description If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them
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Description Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Correlation Correlation Coefficient a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other Correlation Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation
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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with...

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