Flow FINAL

# Flow FINAL - Samref Training and Career Development...

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Samref Training and Career Development Department FLOW OF FLUIDS THROUGH PIPES VALVES AND FITTINGS A.Shams P.Eng. Dec. 98 (Rev 4) FLW11223 CONTENTS 1

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Page No . OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION THEORY OF FLOW IN PIPES EXAMPLES REVIEW PROBLEMS FLOW THROUGH VALVES AND FITTINGS EXAMPLES REVIEW PROBLEMS SUMMARY OF FORMULAE TABLES AND ENGINEERING DATA OBJECTIVES 2
After completing this course, the participants will be able to: Understand the theory of flow through pipes, valves and fittings. Analyze and solve refinery related flow problems by using nomographs and calculations. Perform flow-related calculations in a consistent manner based on the Crane Handbook. INTRODUCTION This course was designed to provide the participants (engineers and senior technicians) with a fundamental understanding of the theory of flow through pipes, valves and other pipe fittings, by revising the elementary laws of fluid flow. To satisfy a demand for simple a simple and practical treatment of fluid flow this course was 3

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based on the Crane Handbook. The information is summarized and auxiliary data necessary for the solution of problem are provided. The greater part of the course will not be spent on the explanation of theories, but on demonstrating the practical methods of solving refinery-related problems. The course should be covered in 3, two-hour sessions. 1.0 THEORY OF FLOW IN PIPES The Darcy formula (Darcy - Weisbach) is a single equation, which can be used for a great variety of different fluids. It has been derived rationally by dimensional analysis; however, one variable, the friction factor must be determined experimentally. Used to calculate head loss: g 2 D fLv p , g 2 D Lv f HL 2 2 ρ = = 1.1 Viscosity 4
Viscosity expresses the readiness with which a fluid flows when acted upon by an external force. Most fluids are predictable in their viscosity. (dyne s/cm 2 ) In the metric system the poise is used. The dimensions are dyne seconds per sq. centimeter. In the Imperial system pounds mass per foot second are used. (lb m /f t s)  Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of absolute viscosity to the mass density. In the Metric system the stoke is used. This has dimensions of sq. cms. per second. Conversion factors are given in the Appendix. 1.2 Weight Density, Specific Volume, and Specific Gravity. Weight density = weight per unit volume Specific Volume = the reciprocal of weight density. V = 1/ ρ Weight densities are unimportant in liquids unless at very high pressures. The weight density of gases and vapors are greatly affected by pressure changes and may be calculated from: The individual gas constant R is equal to the universal gas constant Ro (8314 J/kg - mol K) divided by the molecular weight M of the gas. (MM) R = 1545/MM In steam calculations, the reciprocal of weight density, the specific volume is used.

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## This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course ENGR 101 taught by Professor Mac during the Spring '05 term at Ryerson.

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Flow FINAL - Samref Training and Career Development...

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