Haviland Ch4 PPT - Chapter 4 Becoming Human: The Origin and...

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Chapter 4 Becoming Human: The Origin and Diversity of Our Species
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Chapter Preview To What Group of Animals Do Humans Belong? When and How Did Humans Evolve? Why Do Anthropologists Study the Social Behavior of Monkeys and Apes?
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To What Group of Animals Do Humans Belong? Biologists classify humans as Homo sapiens , members of the primates— a subgroup of mammals. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation and designated by a two part name including genus (Homo) and species (sapiens).
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To What Group of Animals Do Humans Belong? Other primates include lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, and apes. Studying the anatomy and behavior of other primates helps us understand how and why early humans developed as they did.
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When and How Did Humans Evolve? Present evidence suggests that humans evolved from small African apes between 5 and 8 million years ago. Bipedalism, or walking on two feet, was the first change to distinguish the human evolutionary line.
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Is the Biological Concept of Race Useful for Studying Physical Variation in Humans? Biologically defined, race refers to subspecies, and no subspecies exist within modern Homo sapiens. The vast majority of biological variation within our species occurs within populations rather than among them.
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Paleoanthropologists and Primatologists Paleoanthropologists are anthropologists specializing in the study of human evolutionary history. Primatologists are specialists in the behavior and biology of living primates and their evolutionary history.
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Evolution Through Adaptation Evolution refers to changes in the genetic makeup of a population over generations. Genes are basic physical units of heredity that specify the biological traits and characteristics of each organism.
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Evolution Through Adaptation Evolution takes place through adaptation, a series of beneficial adjustments of organisms to their environment. Adaptation is the cornerstone of the theory of evolution by natural selection, originally formulated by English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1859. In this theory, individuals with characteristics best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce with greater frequency than individuals without those characteristics.
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Human Adaptations and Culture Humans relied increasingly on culture as an effective way of adapting to the environment. They figured out how to manufacture and utilize tools. They organized into social units that made food- foraging more successful;. They learned to preserve and share their traditions and knowledge through the use of symbols - ultimately language. (Tues 1/27-pick up here) (Mon Feb 2 pick up here)
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Humans and Other Primates Humans are one of 10 million species on earth, 4,000 of which are fellow mammals.
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course ANTH 100 taught by Professor Juliedavid during the Fall '09 term at Orange Coast College.

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Haviland Ch4 PPT - Chapter 4 Becoming Human: The Origin and...

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