Haviland Ch7 PPT - Chapter7 PatternsofSubsistence...

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Chapter 7 Patterns of Subsistence
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Chapter Preview What Is Adaptation? How Do Humans Adapt Culturally? What Sorts of Cultural Adaptations Have  Humans Achieved Through the Ages?
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What Is Adaptation? Adaptation refers to beneficial adjustments of  organisms to their environment (recall from  Chapter 4).  This process leads to changes in the  organisms and impacts their environment. The human species adapts biologically and  culturally.  Recall (from Ch. 4) that humans  use culture to adapt more prominently than  biology.
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How Do Humans Adapt  Culturally? Through cultural adaptation, humans develop  ways of doing things that are compatible with  the resources they have available to them  and within the limitations of the various  habitats in which they live. Some of these  adaptations last thousands of years.
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What Sorts of  Cultural  Adaptations  Have Humans  Achieved Through the Ages? Food foraging  is the oldest and most universal type of  human adaptation and typically involves geographic  mobility.  Adaptations involving  domestication of plants and  animals , began to develop in some parts of the world  about 10,000 years ago.  Horticulture  led to more permanent settlements while  pastoralism  required mobility to seek out pasture and  water.  Cities began to develop as early as 5,000  years ago  in some world regions.
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Cultural Adaptation The  process organisms undergo to achieve a  beneficial adjustment  to an available  environment. The characteristics of organisms that fit them  to the particular environmental conditions in  which they are found.
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Adaptation Interaction between  changes an organism makes in its  environment changes the environment makes in the  organism . Similar to the concept of biocultural  (Chapter 1-2)
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Ecosystem system , or a functioning whole, composed  of both the  physical environment  and the  organisms  living within it.
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Evolution The  process in which human groups adapt to  their environments  by means of their cultures  over time (evolve). Not all changes turn out to be positive, nor do  they improve conditions for every member of  a society.  Can you think of modern examples  of negative cultural adaptations? Complex, urban societies are not more 
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course ANTH 100 taught by Professor Juliedavid during the Fall '09 term at Orange Coast College.

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Haviland Ch7 PPT - Chapter7 PatternsofSubsistence...

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