Haviland Ch8 PPT - Chapter8 EconomicSystems ChapterPreview...

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Chapter 8 Economic Systems
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Chapter Preview How Do Anthropologists Study Economic  Systems? How Do Different Societies Organize Their  Economic Resources and Labor? How and Why Are Goods  Exchanged and  Redistributed?
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How Do Anthropologists Study  Economic Systems? Anthropologists study how goods are  produced, distributed, and consumed in the  context of the total culture of particular  societies. Most anthropologists recognize that theories  derived from the study of capitalist market  economies have limited applicability to  economic systems in societies where people  do not produce and exchange goods for  private profit. 
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How Do Societies Organize  Economic Resources and Labor? In small-scale nonindustrial societies valuable  resources are usually controlled by groups of  relatives.  Division of labor is by age and gender with  some craft specialization.   Production takes place at the time  required, and most goods are consumed  by the group that produces them.
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How Do Societies Organize  Economic Resources and Labor? In large-scale industrial and postindustrial  societies: There is a much more complex division of  labor. Individuals or business corporations own  property. Producers and consumers rarely know  each other.   (This is the case in our culture.  Do you know where your breakfast came  from? Your t-shirt?)
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Economic  System A means of producing, distributing, and  consuming goods.
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The Yam Complex in Trobriand  Culture Trobriand Island men  devote a great deal of  time and energy to  raising yams, not for  themselves but to give  to others.  These yams, which  have been raised by  men related through  marriage to a chief, are  about to be loaded into  the chief’s yam house.
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Resources Resources used to produce goods and  services include: Raw materials Labor Technology
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Control of Land and Water  Resources All societies regulate allocation of valuable  natural resources—especially land and water.   Food foragers determine who will hunt game  and gather plants in their home range and  where these activities take place. Farmers must have some means of  determining title to land and access to water  for irrigation. 
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Control of Land and Water  Resources Pastoralists require a system that determines  rights to watering places and grazing land. In  Western capitalist societies, private  ownership  of land and rights to natural  resources generally prevails.
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Ju/’hoansi A Ju/’hoansi water hole.  The practice of defining  territories on the basis  of core features such as  water holes is typical of  food foragers, such as  these people of the  Kalahari Desert in  southern Africa.
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