Haviland Chapter 13 - C hapte 13 r S pirituality Re ligion...

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Chapter 13 Spirituality, Religion, and theSupernatural
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Chapter Preview What AreReligion and Spirituality? What AretheIdentifying Features of Religion and Spirituality? What Functions Do Religion and Spirituality Serve?
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What Are Religion and Spirituality? Religion is an organized system of ideas about spiritual reality, or thesupernatural, along with associated beliefs and ceremonial practices. Spirituality, which also concerns thesupernatural, involves less formalized spiritual beliefs and practices and is often individual rather than collective.
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What Are the I dentifying Features of Religion and Spirituality? Religion consists of beliefs and rituals that people useto interpret, appeal to, and manipulatesupernatural beings and powers to their advantage. A body of myths rationalizes or explains thesystemin a manner consistent with people’s experiencein theworld in which they live.
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What Functions Do Religion and Spirituality Serve? All religions servea number of important functions: They reduceanxiety by explaining theunknown and offer comfort in times of crisis. They providenotions of right and wrong, setting precedents for acceptablebehavior. Through ritual, religion may beused to enhancethe learning of oral traditions.
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Worldview Thecollectivebody of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning theultimateshapeand substanceof their reality.
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Religion Organized belief in thesupernatural. Fulfill numerous social and psychological needs. No known group of peopleanywhereon thefaceof the earth, at any timeover thepast 100,000 years, havebeen without religion.
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Religion Members of the Church of Zion, an indigenous Christian church with a Zulu congregation, perform a baptism in the Indian Ocean near Durban, South Africa. Over half of Christian church members in South Africa belong to churches that combine traditional African beliefs and rituals with Christianity.
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Non-Christian Religions in the US are Growing Islam (3-5 million followers – up from 527,000 in 1990 Buddhism (2-3million – up from 401,000 in 1990 Hinduism (1.28 million – up from 227,000 in 1990 New age groups like Wicca is growing …in addition to thosewho do not affiliatewith any religion (from U.S. Census 2000 Imaginethesenumbers today.
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Major Religions of the World
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Anthropological Approach to Religion Religion is an organized system of ideas about the spiritual sphere, along with ceremonial practices by which peopletry to interpret and/or influenceaspects of the universeotherwisebeyond their control. Spirituality is also concerned with thesacred, as distinguished frommaterial matters, but it is often individual rather than collectiveand does not requirea distinctiveformat or traditional organization.
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Anthropological Approach to Religion Food-foraging peoples, whose technological ability to manipulate their environment is limited, and who tend to seethemselves as part of, rather than masters of nature, will havea more naturalistic worldview. This makes sensein their egalitarian nature, which sees
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