lec15Reproduction

lec15Reproduction - Reproduction Viruses HIV & AIDS...

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Viruses
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HIV & AIDS HIV & AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus HIV-2 Is traced back to the sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys Endemic in West Africa and India HIV-1 Is traced back to the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes Major cause of AIDS worldwide Uses CD4 as its main receptor for entry Uses CCR5 and CXCR4 as co-receptors
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV) http://www.grossmont.edu/cmilgrim/Bio120/Outline/OutlineFigures/HIVstructure.htm
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HIV Replication Binds receptor (CD4) & coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) Enters cells by membrane fusion at cell surface Entry is followed by “uncoating” and reverse transcription
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HIV Replication Translation and assembly Virus buds from cell and then matures
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HIV and AIDS Pandemic 33 million people in the world are living with HIV/AIDS 2.5 million people infected with HIV every year 2.1 million people die of AIDS every year (WHO & UNAIDS 2007)
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Problems for Treating HIV HIV has high mutation rate due to error-prone reverse transcription and recombination Rapid replication of HIV produces many mutated progeny High viral load often overwhelms treatment HIV evolves to escape immune pressure
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Genome Genome --> the totality of the cell genetic material. Examples of genomes: smallest virus – 4-5 genes E. coli – single chromosome containing 4,288 genes; 1 mm; 1,000X longer than cell Human cell – 46 chromosomes containing 31,000 genes; 6 feet; 180,000X longer than cell Gene: segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein.
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Bacteria --> single chromosome that carries all essential genes and a plasmid which carries nonessential genes. The chromosome: single, long piece of circular, double stranded DNA. Plasmid: Small DNA circles ranges in size from 1.5 kilobase (kb) pairs to 120 kb pairs. Many plasmids contain
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course BIO 100 taught by Professor S.sanchez during the Spring '10 term at Orange Coast College.

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lec15Reproduction - Reproduction Viruses HIV & AIDS...

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