Mic 330 HW_5B_SmokingStudies

Mic 330 - ARUMUGAM SHANTHINI Homework Assignment_Smoking GROUP 1 During the last two years a lot has been written-and said-about the dangers of

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ARUMUGAM SHANTHINI GROUP 1 Homework Assignment _Smoking During the last two years, a lot has been written--and said--about the dangers of cigarette smoking, especially as a possible cause of the alarming increase in cancer of the lung. But there is still much confusion about the tobacco-cancer issue. Most of the scientists who have given thought and study to the matter appear to agree that an association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the lung does exist. Whether that association is one of cause and effect is as yet unanswered in terms of major scientific opinion. The American physician Dr. Isaac Adler was, in fact, the first scientist to propose a link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in 1912, based on his observation that lung cancer patients often reported that they were smokers. Adler’s observations, however, were anecdotal, and provided no scientific evidence toward demonstrating a relationship. The German epidemiologist Franz Müller is credited with the first case-control study of smoking and lung cancer in the 1930s. Müller sent a survey to the relatives of individuals who had died of cancer, and asked them about the smoking habits of the deceased. Based on the responses he received, Müller reported a higher incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers compared to light smokers; however, the study had a number of problems. First, it relied on the memory of relatives of deceased individuals rather than first-hand observations, and second, no statistical association was made. Beginning in the 1950s, several well-controlled comparative studies were initiated. In
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course MIC 330 taught by Professor John during the Spring '11 term at Cal Poly.

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Mic 330 - ARUMUGAM SHANTHINI Homework Assignment_Smoking GROUP 1 During the last two years a lot has been written-and said-about the dangers of

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