Mic 330 - Mic 330 Home Work Assignment Disease Set 1 1....

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Mic 330 Home Work Assignment Disease Set 1 1. African Trypanosomiasis Agent : Two subspecies of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense ) cause infection. Spore former : Natural Reservoir : Wild game mammals (hartebeest, lion, hyena) as well as cattle Incubation Period : T brucei rhodesiense infection is 3 to 21 days and usually is 5 to 14 days; for T brucei gambiense infection, the incubation period usually is longer and variable, ranging from several months to years. Mode of Transmission : Infection occurs through vector-borne transmission by the bite of an infected tsetse fly ( Glossina spp.). Transmission via bloodborne or congenital routes can occur but is rarely reported. Risk Factor : living in parts of Africa where the disease is found and being bitten by tsetse flies. The disease is extremely rare in the United States, and is only found in travelers who have visited or lived in those African areas. Symptoms : Gambiense infections lead to drowsiness during the day, but insomnia at night. Sleep becomes uncontrollable as the disease gets worse, and eventually leads to coma . General symptoms include: Anxiety Drowsiness Fever Headache Increased sleepiness
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Insomnia at night Mood changes Sweating Swollen lymph nodes all over the body Swollen, red, painful nodule at site of fly bite Uncontrollable urge to sleep Diagnosis : Microscopic identification of parasites in specimens of blood, chancre fluid or tissue, lymph node aspirate, or cerebrospinal fluid. Buffy coat preparations concentrate the parasite. Parasitemias are higher in T. b. rhodesiense than in T. b. gambiense infection. Serologic tests are not helpful for diagnosis of T. b. rhodesiense . CDC can provide information for arranging for serologic testing for T. b. gambiense , which is not available in the United States. Vaccine : There is no vaccine or drug to prevent African trypanosomiasis Therapy : Medications used to treat this disorder include: Eflornithine (for gambiense only) Melarsoprol Pentamidine Suramin (Antrypol) Prevention/Control : Pentamidine injections protect against gambiense , but not against rhodesiense . Insect control measures can help prevent the spread of sleeping sickness in high-risk areas. When traveling in areas where the disease occurs, take these precautions against bites from tsetse flies and other insects: Wear protective clothing, including long-sleeved shirts and pants. Tsetse flies can bite through thin fabrics, so clothing should be made of thick material. Wear khaki or olive-colored clothing. Tsetse flies are attracted to bright and dark colors.
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Use bednets. Inspect vehicles for tsetse flies before entering.
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course MIC 330 taught by Professor John during the Spring '11 term at Cal Poly.

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Mic 330 - Mic 330 Home Work Assignment Disease Set 1 1....

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