3c2009_preparing_for_WWII

3c2009_preparing_for_WWII - 10/20/2009 Science and...

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10/20/2009 1 Science and Technology in the 20 th Century History 3c, Fall 2009 Week 4: Science and Technology in World War II Lecture 7: Preparing for World War II Soraya de Chadarevian B-29 bomber London after 1941 bombing Outline 1. Introduction (World War II, some figures, timeline) 2. Science and war 3. Active mobilization 4 Radar and OR 4. Radar and OR 5. Penicillin project 6. Postwar legacies
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10/20/2009 2 1. Introduction (World War II, some figures, timeline) 60 million people lost their lives; vast part of Europe and East Asia in ruins Timeline March 1938 German annexation of Austria Oct 1938 “Munich crisis”, Hitler annexes Sudetenland Sept 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland Sept 3, 1939 France and Britain declare war; Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa join within a week May 1940 Germany invades Belgium, the Netherlands and France A Ot ’40 B ttl f B it i f ll d b G b bi i Aug – Oct ’40 Battle of Britain followed by German bombing campaign Jun 1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union Dec 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor; US declares war on Japan and joins allied war effort Nov 1942 Germany troops defeated in North Africa Feb 1943 Germany defeated at Stalingrad (U.S.S.R.) Sept 1943 Italy surrenders and joins allies Jun 1944 Normandy landing May,8 1945 German capitulation Aug,6 & 9 ’45 atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Aug,15 1945 Japan surrenders; war ends 2. Science and war Main focus on role of scientists in war effort Relation of science and war often seen as antithetical: science as the pursuit of objective knowledge and a fundamentally humane endeavour vs war as destructive power The application of science to war seen as an aberration of its actual aims/misuse Main questions: (1) How have scientists made their way into the war? (2) What does their involvement tell us about science and war? (3) How has the mobilization of scientists affected both science and the military and their interrelationship? Focus on Britain and US Science and technology in Germany next week. 3. Active mobilization (resistance to demobilization after WW I, scientific register, science at war) Recap: Involvement of scientists in WW I Chemists offering their service Resistance to demobilization; army enlisted in campaign to save Chemical Warfare Service Scientific advisory boards in aeronautics and navy National Research Councils Fuller use of scientific resources advocated Active mobilization in preparation for new war Example: Active mobilization not just by right wing groups Socialist scientists in UK they criticized the association of science with existing capitalistic and economic system and its military structures Promoted use of science for social needs and for this end demanded more state support of science J. D. Bernal, The Social Function of Science (1939) initially anti-war; changed position with Spanish Civil war (1936)
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10/20/2009 3 The only time I could get my ideas translated in any way into action in the real world was in the service of war. And though it was a war which I felt then and still feel had to be won, its destructive
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3c2009_preparing_for_WWII - 10/20/2009 Science and...

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