lec6 radioactivity

lec6 radioactivity - Radioactivity and Fission (Marie...

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1 Radioactivity and Fission (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner) • 1. Significance of this story • 2. The career of Marie Curie • 3. Marie and Pierre, a scientific couple • 4. Interlude: interwar politics. Also: Ernst Rutherford and atomic physics. • 5. Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn, and nuclear fission. • 6. Fission, Nazism, and the outbreak of war 1. Why does this story matter? Wilhelm Röntgen (1845-1923) makes X-rays 1895 Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), while studying phosphorescence in uranium salts, encounters the spontaneous emission of radiation, soon afterwards named radioactivity. It opened a new world to physics. 2. Marie Curie makes a career in physics The women’s movement of the late 19 th century MC’s background. Poland The women’s movement Daughter of schoolteacher (and well educated in schools). Her pact with sister Helena Marie Curie (1867-1934) Maria Sk ł odowska goes to Paris Opportunities for women (esp. if not French) in Paris. She enters the Sorbonne, 1891. She was one of 23 women (out of about 1800) in science. The strong science faculty there included Poincaré. Henri Poincaré 1854-1912
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2 3. A scientific couple Engaged to Pierre Curie 1895 (he was eight years older) The scientific partnership (marital or not) and opportunity for women Pierre’s standing outside the scientific establishment (anchored in grandes écoles). He was a socialist and worked in an industrial school. Their lab: a warehouse. A scientific family She was more skilled in mathematics; they both worked at experiments (with some division of labor). They also suffered health effects of prolonged low- level radiation. He was run over by a wagon and killed in 1906. Marie Curie and Iréne
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lec6 radioactivity - Radioactivity and Fission (Marie...

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