Chapter 38.pe - Chapter38 AntidiabeticAgents &Wilkins...

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Chapter 38 Antidiabetic Agents
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Function of the Pancreas Gland Endocrine gland Produces hormones in the islets of Langerhans Exocrine gland Releases sodium bicarbonate and pancreatic  enzymes directly into the common bile duct to be  released into the small intestine Neutralizes the acid chyme from the stomach and  aids digestion
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Insulin Definition Hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of  Langerhans Action Released into circulation when the levels of  glucose around these cells rise Stimulates the synthesis of glycogen, the  conversion of lipids into fat stored in the form of  adipose tissue, and the synthesis of needed  proteins from amino acids
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Metabolic Changes Occurring When Insufficient  Insulin Is Released Hyperglycemia: increased blood sugar Glycosuria: sugar is spilled into the urine  Polyphagia: increased hunger Polydipsia: increased thirst Lipolysis: fat breakdown Ketosis: ketones cannot be removed effectively Acidosis: liver cannot remove all of the waste products  
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Diabetes Mellitus Characteristics Complex disturbances in metabolism Affects carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism Clinical signs Hyperglycemia (fasting blood sugar level greater than 126  mg/dL) Glycosuria (the presence of sugar in the urine)
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Disorders Associated With Diabetes Atherosclerosis: heart attacks and strokes related to the  development of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessel lining Retinopathy: loss of vision as tiny vessels in the eye are  narrowed and closed Neuropathies: motor and sensory changes in the feet and 
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Chapter 38.pe - Chapter38 AntidiabeticAgents &Wilkins...

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