Chapter 55.pe - Chapter55...

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Chapter 55 Drugs Used to Treat Obstructive Pulmonary  Disorders
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Changes in the Airway With COPD
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Manifestations of Severe COPD Air is trapped in the lower respiratory tract The alveoli degenerate and fuse together The exchange of gases is greatly impaired
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Preventive and Treatment  Measures for COPD Reduce environmental exposure to irritants Stop smoking Filter allergens from the air Avoid exposure to known irritants and allergens Open the conducting airways through muscular  bronchodilation Decrease the effects of inflammation on the airway  lining
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Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Characteristics Progressive loss of lung compliance and increasing  hypoxia Causes Cardiovascular collapse, major burns, severe  trauma, and rapid depressurization Treatment  Reversal of the underlying cause combined with  ventilatory support
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Xanthines Action Direct effect on the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract,  both in the bronchi and in the blood vessels Indication Symptomatic relief or prevention of bronchial asthma and for  reversal of bronchospasm associated with COPD Pharmacokinetics Narrow therapeutic margin Rapidly absorbed from the GI tract Metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine
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Xanthines (cont.) Contraindications GI problems, coronary disease, respiratory dysfunction, renal or  hepatic disease, alcoholism, and hyperthyroidism  Adverse effects  Related to theophylline levels in the blood Range from GI upset, nausea, irritability, and tachycardia to  seizure, brain damage, and even death Drug-to-drug interactions Many drugs interact with xanthines Nicotine increases xanthine metabolism
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Sympathomimetics
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2011 for the course RNSG 1301 taught by Professor Loftin during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College.

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Chapter 55.pe - Chapter55...

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