Chapter 2 Reading Summary

Chapter 2 Reading Summary - Chapter 2 Measuring Earthquakes...

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Chapter 2: Measuring Earthquakes History: The First Ways of Recording Earthquakes (before 1800s) - First phase, they started to define earthquakes by Intensity: They measured earthquakes during this time by simply looking at the intensity of the earthquake o Pignataro 1783 devised a basic intensity scale in Italy o Revided by Even in 1828 with a 6 phase scale: This was used in the Netherlands Earthquake in 1828 - Second phases, Define areas of equal intensity o Noggerath in 1847 with the Rhenish earthquake, he defined the quake by 2 areas of intensityw ith lines known and isoseismals o Malaga, Spain in 1680: they could roughly estimate source, fault and locations with just intensity reports. What is intensity: The intensity is determined by distance/depth of the source, the material and the topography of the site experiencing ground movement. - Wave Attenuation: There is a decrease in wave amplitude and ground intensity as the wave moves through ground and energy is loss by absorbtion. o Geometrical Spreading: in a wave front, waves ripple like a pond and being to lose amplitude and intensity o Deeper earthquakes cause lower surface intensities than shallower ones of the same size o Groundshaking is the greatest above the source - Rock Type and Amplifying Intensity: Certain weak materials like sand and mud can amplify ground shaking at some frequencies due to poor elastic response o 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake Southeast of San Francisco. Ground shaking amplified by the foundation
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  • Fall '08
  • SAMMIS
  • Seismic wave, basic intensity scale, current proportions Seismograph, International Federation of Digital Seismograph, Digital Seismograph Networks—more

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