wk 4 - EE 571/471 Sustainable Energy Systems David Shaw...

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Unformatted text preview: EE 571/471 Sustainable Energy Systems David Shaw 2/3/2010 Review – Chapter 4: Regional, Global Effects of Energy • Climate change – GHG: How did we get here? – Historically, CO2 increases lead to temp increases – There is an increase of about 1.3 F since 1970, but no change in the last decade. • Sun/earth is in a radiative heat transfer balance – Radiative energy ~ T 4 – Without atm, the earth would be ~6C, or 43F, which is colder then the actual 14C, or 57F. The high temp is due to IR trapping by H2O – Sun ~ visible radiation; earth ~ IR • There are 4 glacial cycles recorded in the ice core; the actual # of glacial cycles may be higher – Because of very small gravity from Saturn and Jupiter, the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit changes over time – it gets bigger and then smaller with a periodicity of about 100,000 years. – Right now, according this chart, we are heading toward another ice age! 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Approximate average earth temperature (°C) Adapted from http://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/wa tch/climate_change/change.htm Review – Chapter 4: Regional, Global Effects of Energy Last Ice Age Humans are ‘forcing’ the system in a new way. CO 2 increases are mainly due to fossil fuel burning. CO 2 has not been this high in more than half a million years. Last Interglacial Ice ages are not random. They are 'forced' (by earth’s orbital clock…. changes in the sunlight received). 350 300 250 200 Carbon Dioxide (ppmv) 600 500 400 300 200 100 Thousands of Years Before Present [Adapted from Figure 6.3, © IPCC 2007: WG1-AR4] Local and regional effects • Traditionally, environmental pollution is targeted on human health – U.S. first thought about environment after the 1 st atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki – Later, regulations on asbestos, lead, SO2, Hg, etc. • All these are inhaled as aerosol particles with relatively short lifetime in atm – local, regional • Particulates can transferred ~ hundreds of miles • Nitric oxides come in in 1970’s because of their role in producing chemically active species Spatial grids used in the CC models Assignments # 4-- Due 5 PM 02/17/10 1. Reading – Chapter 4 2. Do you think the global warming potential of a given amount of GHG emission would be different with a different global circulation climate model? Explain your reasoning (1 single-space page) Global Environmental Effects of Energy (IPCC) IPCC report 2007: The World Has Warmed • Globally averaged, the planet is about 0.75°C (1.35 °F)warmer than it was in 1860, based upon dozens of high-quality long records using thermometers worldwide, including land and ocean. • Eleven of the last 12 years are among warmest since 1850 in the global average....
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wk 4 - EE 571/471 Sustainable Energy Systems David Shaw...

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