Chapter 13 Outline

Chapter 13 Outline - Chapter 13 Outline: Properties of...

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Chapter 13 Outline: Properties of Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent. How Does a Solution Form 1. Solvent molecules attracted to surface ions. 2. Each ion is surrounded by solvent molecules. 3. Enthalpy (DH) changes with each interaction broken or formed. The ions are solvated (surrounded by solvent). If the solvent is water, the ions are hydrated. The intermolecular force here is ion-dipole. To determine the enthalpy change, we divide the process into 3 steps. 1. Separation of solute particles. 2. Separation of solvent particles to make ‘holes’. 3. Formation of new interactions between solute and solvent. Some processes, like the dissolution of NH 4 NO 3 in water, are spontaneous at room temperature even though heat is absorbed, not released. Entropy is a measure of: Dispersal of energy in the system. Number of microstates (arrangements) in the system. Each step also involves a change in entropy. 1. Separation of solute particles. 2. Separation of solvent particles to make ‘holes’. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor John during the Spring '11 term at Caldwell College.

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Chapter 13 Outline - Chapter 13 Outline: Properties of...

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