Chapter 20 Outline

Chapter 20 Outline - Joseph Chapter 20: Chemical...

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Joseph Chapter 20: Chemical Thermodynamics In electrochemical reactions, electrons are transferred from one species to another. In order to keep track of what loses electrons and what gains them, we assign oxidation numbers. A species is oxidized when it loses electrons. A species is reduced when it gains electrons. Elements in their elemental form have an oxidation number of 0. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is the same as its charge. Nonmetals tend to have negative oxidation numbers, although some are positive in certain compounds or ions. o Oxygen has an oxidation number of −2, except in the peroxide ion in which it has an oxidation number of −1. o Hydrogen is −1 when bonded to a metal, +1 when bonded to a nonmetal. The sum of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is 0. The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is the charge on the ion. Half-Reaction Method
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Chapter 20 Outline - Joseph Chapter 20: Chemical...

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