Chapter 5 Thermochem - Chapter 5 Chapter Thermochemistry...

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Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry
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Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion: Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position. Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy. Example: a bicyclist at the top of a hill. The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy 2 2 1 mv E k =
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Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Electrostatic potential energy, E d , is the attraction between two oppositely charged particles, Q 1 and Q 2 , a distance d apart: The constant κ = 8.99 × 10 9 J-m/C 2 . If the two particles are of opposite charge, then E d is the electrostatic attraction between them. The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy d Q Q E d 2 1 κ =
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Units of Energy SI Unit for energy is the joule, J: We sometimes use the calorie instead of the joule: 1 cal = 4.184 J (exactly) A nutritional Calorie: 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 1 kcal ( 29 ( 29 J 1 m/s - kg 1 m/s 1 kg 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 = = = = mv E k
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Systems and Surroundings Analyzing Energy Changes System: part of the universe we are interested in. Surroundings: the rest of the universe.
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Transferring Energy Work and Heat Force is a push or pull on an object. Work is the product of force applied to an object over a distance: Energy is the work done to move an object against a force. Heat is the transfer of energy between two objects. Energy is the capacity to do work or transfer heat. d F w × =
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The First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created or destroyed Total energy lost by a system equals the total energy gained by a system.
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