Chapter 8 Bonding

Chapter 8 Bonding - Chapter 8 Chapter Basic Concepts of...

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Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Bonding
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Chemical bond : attractive force holding two or more atoms together. Covalent bond results from sharing electrons between the atoms. Usually found between nonmetals. Ionic bond results from the transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal. Metallic bond : attractive force holding pure metals together. Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule the Octet Rule
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As a pictorial understanding of where the electrons are in an atom, we represent the electrons as dots around the symbol for the element. The number of electrons available for bonding are indicated by unpaired dots. These symbols are called Lewis symbols. We generally place the electrons one four sides of a square around the element symbol. Lewis Symbols
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Lewis Symbols
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All noble gases except He has an s 2 p 6 configuration. Octet rule: atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by 8 valence electrons (4 electron pairs). Caution : there are many exceptions to the octet rule. The Octet Rule
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The reaction is violently exothermic. We infer that the NaCl is more stable than its constituent elements. Why? Na has lost an electron to become Na + and chlorine has gained the electron to become Cl - . Note: Na + has an Ne electron configuration and Cl - has an Ar configuration. That is, both Na + and Cl - have an octet of electrons surrounding the central ion. Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding
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Ionic Bonding Arrangement Ionic Bonding Arrangement
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Lattice energy: the energy required to completely separate an ionic solid into its gaseous ions. Lattice energy depends on the charges on the ions and the sizes of the ions: κ is a constant (8.99 x 10 9 J·m/C 2 ), Q 1 and Q 2 are the charges on the ions, and d is the distance between ions. Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation d Q Q E l 2 1 κ =
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These are derived from the electron configuration of elements with the required number of electrons added or removed from the most accessible orbital. Electron configurations can predict stable ion formation: Mg: [Ne]3 s 2 Electron Configurations of Ions of the Representative Elements
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Transition Metal Ions Lattice energies compensate for the loss of up to three electrons. In general, electrons are removed from orbitals in order of decreasing n (i.e. electrons are removed from 4 s before the 3 d ). Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are formed when there is an overall charge on a compound containing covalent bonds. E.g. SO 4 2 - , NO 3 - . Transition Metal Ions and Polyatomic Ions
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When two similar atoms bond, none of them wants to lose or gain an electron to form an octet. When similar atoms bond, they share pairs of electrons to
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Chapter 8 Bonding - Chapter 8 Chapter Basic Concepts of...

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