chapter 10 Gases - General Chemistry I General Chapter 10...

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General Chemistry I General Chemistry I Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Gases Gases
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Gases You Have Encountered Gases You Have Encountered
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Characteristics of Gases Characteristics of Gases Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases Gases are highly compressible and occupy the full volume of their containers. (Chapter 1) When a gas is subjected to pressure, its volume decreases. .
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Pressure is the force acting on an object per unit area: Gravity exerts a force on the earth’s atmosphere A column of air 1 m 2 in cross section exerts a force of 10 5 N. The pressure of a 1 m 2 column of air is 100 kPa. SI Units: 1 N = 1 kg.m/s 2 ; 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 . Pressure Pressure A F P =
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Atmosphere Pressure and The Barometer If a tube is inserted into a container of mercury open to the atmosphere, the mercury will rise 760 mm up the tube. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer . Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support 760 mm of Hg in a column . Units: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1.01325 × 105 Pa = 101.325 kPa.
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Class Guided Practice Problem (a) Convert 0.527 atm to torr (b) Convert 760 torr to kPa Class Practice Problem (c) Convert 147.2 kPa to (1) atm and (2) torr
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Atmosphere Pressure and The Manometer The pressures of gases not open to the atmosphere are measured in manometers. A manometer consists of a bulb of gas attached to a U-tube containing Hg: – If P gas < P atm then P gas + P h 2 = P atm . – If P gas > P atm then P gas = P atm + P h 2 . (See example problem 10.2)
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Defining States of Gases Defining States of Gases Gas experiments revealed that four variables will affect the state of a gas: Temperature, T Volume, V Pressure, P Quantity of gas present, n (moles) These variables are related through equations know as the gas laws.
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Consider the three gas laws. We can combine these into a general gas law: Boyle’s Law: Charles’s Law : Avogadro’s Law: The Ideal Gas Equation The Ideal Gas Equation ) , (constant 1 T n P V ) , (constant P n T V ) , (constant T P n V P nT V
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The Gas Laws: The Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law The Pressure-Volume Relationship : Weather balloons are used as a practical consequence to the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas. As the weather balloon ascends, the volume increases. As the weather balloon gets further from the earth’s surface, the atmospheric pressure decreases. Boyle’s Law: the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Boyle used a manometer to carry out the experiment.
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Boyle’s Law
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Mathematically: A plot of V versus P is a hyperbola.
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