chapter 10 Gases

# chapter 10 Gases - General Chemistry I General Chapter 10...

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General Chemistry I General Chemistry I Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Gases Gases

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Gases You Have Encountered Gases You Have Encountered
Characteristics of Gases Characteristics of Gases Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases Gases are highly compressible and occupy the full volume of their containers. (Chapter 1) When a gas is subjected to pressure, its volume decreases. .

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Pressure is the force acting on an object per unit area: Gravity exerts a force on the earth’s atmosphere A column of air 1 m 2 in cross section exerts a force of 10 5 N. The pressure of a 1 m 2 column of air is 100 kPa. SI Units: 1 N = 1 kg.m/s 2 ; 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 . Pressure Pressure A F P =

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Atmosphere Pressure and The Barometer If a tube is inserted into a container of mercury open to the atmosphere, the mercury will rise 760 mm up the tube. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer . Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support 760 mm of Hg in a column . Units: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1.01325 × 105 Pa = 101.325 kPa.

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Class Guided Practice Problem (a) Convert 0.527 atm to torr (b) Convert 760 torr to kPa Class Practice Problem (c) Convert 147.2 kPa to (1) atm and (2) torr
Atmosphere Pressure and The Manometer The pressures of gases not open to the atmosphere are measured in manometers. A manometer consists of a bulb of gas attached to a U-tube containing Hg: – If P gas < P atm then P gas + P h 2 = P atm . – If P gas > P atm then P gas = P atm + P h 2 . (See example problem 10.2)

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Defining States of Gases Defining States of Gases Gas experiments revealed that four variables will affect the state of a gas: Temperature, T Volume, V Pressure, P Quantity of gas present, n (moles) These variables are related through equations know as the gas laws.
Consider the three gas laws. We can combine these into a general gas law: Boyle’s Law: Charles’s Law : Avogadro’s Law: The Ideal Gas Equation The Ideal Gas Equation ) , (constant 1 T n P V ) , (constant P n T V ) , (constant T P n V P nT V

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The Gas Laws: The Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law The Pressure-Volume Relationship : Weather balloons are used as a practical consequence to the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas. As the weather balloon ascends, the volume increases. As the weather balloon gets further from the earth’s surface, the atmospheric pressure decreases. Boyle’s Law: the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Boyle used a manometer to carry out the experiment.
Boyle’s Law

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Mathematically: A plot of V versus P is a hyperbola.
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