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chapter 11 IMF Liq and Solid

chapter 11 IMF Liq and Solid - CHEMISTRY The Central...

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Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids and Solids CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition Summer 2005 Instructor: Dr. Michael Curry
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The Behavior of Gases The ideal gas law (PV=nRT) Used to describe how ideal gases behave. However, does not explain why gases behave in such a fashion . The density of a gas can be calculated using the Ideal gas law by multiplying it times it molar mass. In the real world, gases deviate significantly from ideal behavior.
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Kinetic molecular theory developed by Rudolf Clasius (ca. 1857) to explain gas behavior (PV=nRT only describes the behavior of gases). Why does gases expand when heated? Why do pressure increase as gases are compressed? Sometimes called the “theory of moving molecules”. Basically, kinetic molecular theory gives us an understanding of pressure and temperature on the molecular level. Kinetic Molecular Theory
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Gases consist of a large number of molecules in constant random motion. Volume of individual molecules negligible compared to volume of container. Intermolecular forces (attractive and repulsive) between gas molecules are negligible. Collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic at constant temperature (no energy is lost). The average kinetic energy of the molecules are proportional to the absolute temperature (i.e., all molecules possess the same average kinetic energy at any given temperature.) Kinetic Molecular Theory Assumptions
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Questions?
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Physical properties of substances understood in terms of kinetic molecular theory: Liquids are almost incompressible, assume the shape but not the volume of container: Liquids molecules are held closer together than gas molecules, but not so rigidly that the molecules cannot slide past each other. Solids are incompressible and have a definite shape and volume: Solid molecules are packed closely together. The molecules are so rigidly packed that they cannot easily slide past each other. A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids
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Comparison of Liquids Comparison of Liquids and Solids Cont. and Solids Cont.
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Converting a gas into a liquid or solid requires the molecules to get closer to each other: Cooling or compressing will result in molecules with smaller distances between them. Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires the molecules to move further apart: Heating or reducing pressure will result in molecules with larger distances between them. Converting Liquids to Converting Liquids to Solids and Gases Solids and Gases
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Structure of Liquids, Structure of Liquids, Solids, and Gases Solids, and Gases
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These are the forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces .
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