chapter 12 - CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition...

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Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Modern Materials Modern Materials CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition
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What are Modern What are Modern Materials Materials Liquid Crystals LCD televisions Polymeric Materials Paint or lubrication Ceramics Tools and knives Thin Films The hard drive in your computer
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Generally there are three different states of Matter Solid, liquid, and gas Solids are characterized by their order Liquids and gases are characterized by almost random ordering of molecules There is an intermediate phase where liquids show a limited amount of ordering The liquid flows (liquid properties) but has some order (crystal properties) Example: cholesterol benzoate above 179 ° C is clear. Between 145 ° C and 179 ° C cholesterol benzoate is milky and liquid crystalline Liquid crystals are not quite solid and not quite liquid Liquid Crystals Liquid Crystals
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Types of Liquid Crystals Types of Liquid Crystals Liquid crystals are considered to be crystals that have lost some of its positional order, while maintaining its orientational order Liquid crystal molecules are usually long and rod-like Three types of liquid crystalline phase depending on ordering nematic liquid crystals (least ordered): ordered along the long axis of the molecule only smectic liquid crystals: ordered along the long axis of the molecule and in one other dimension cholesteric liquid crystals (most ordered)
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Nematic Liquid Crystals Nematic Liquid Crystals Nematic liquid crystals are polarizable organic molecules with rod-like shapes These crystals are generally twenty angstroms in length The crystals have a tendency to organize themselves along the long axis, but no ordering in respects to the ends Think about the shaking of tooth picks in a large rectangular box Nematic crystals display unique optical properties
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chapter 12 - CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition...

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