chapter 13 Properties of Solution

chapter 13 Properties of Solution - Chapter 13 Chapter 13...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Properties of Solutions CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solute (present in smallest amount) and solvent (present in largest amount). • Solution may be gas, liquid, or solids • Each substance present is a component of the solution. • Solvent is the substances used to dissolve the solute. • In the process of making solutions with condensed phases, intermolecular forces become rearranged. • Intermolecular forces hold the solute particle and the solvent that surrounds it together. • Solutions form when the attractive forces between solute and solvent can overcome the attractive forces with in the solute or solvent particles. The Solution The Solution Types of Solutions Types of Solutions • Consider NaCl (solute) dissolving in water (solvent): • The water H-bonds have to be interrupted, Formation of a Solution Formation of a Solution • There are three energy steps in forming a solution: Energy Changes in Solution Energy Changes in Solution Formation Formation Enthalpic Contributions Enthalpic Contributions • Breaking attractive intermolecular forces is always endothermic. • Forming attractive intermolecular forces is always exothermic. 1 2 Enthalpy Properties of a Solution Enthalpy Properties of a Solution • “Rule”: polar solvents dissolve polar solutes. Non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes. Why? The Solution Process The Solution Process • Solution can either be endothermic or exothermic: • For example: The Solution Process The Solution Process • A spontaneous process occurs without outside intervention. • When energy of the system decreases (e.g. dropping a book and allowing it to fall to a lower potential energy), the process is spontaneous. • Some spontaneous processes do not involve the system moving to a lower energy state (e.g. an endothermic reaction). The Spontaneity of Solutions The Spontaneity of Solutions (Energy Decrease) (Energy Decrease) • If the process leads to a greater state of disorder, then the process is spontaneous. The Spontaneity of Solutions The Spontaneity of Solutions (Increasing Disorder) (Increasing Disorder) Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb • All methods involve quantifying amount of solute per amount of solvent (or solution). • Generally amounts or measures are masses, moles or liters. • Qualitatively solutions are dilute or concentrated. • Definitions: Ways of Expressing Concentration Ways of Expressing Concentration 100 solution of mass total solution in component of mass component of % mass × = Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb • Parts per million (ppm) can be expressed as 1 mg of solute per kilogram of solution....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/20/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor John during the Spring '11 term at Caldwell College.

Page1 / 42

chapter 13 Properties of Solution - Chapter 13 Chapter 13...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online