Chapter 19 Thermodynamics

Chapter 19 Thermodynamics - CHEMISTRY The Central Science...

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Chapter 19 Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics CHEMISTRY The Central Science 9th Edition
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Why Chemical Thermodynamics Why Chemical Thermodynamics Thus far, we have examined the rate at which a reaction will occur and how far a reaction will go to completion. Both rate and equilibrium of a reaction depends on the energy of the reaction. Chemical Thermodynamics is used to relate the chemical energies of a reaction to the reactants and products (i.e., thermodynamics is concerned with the question: can a reaction occur?). we will consider enthalpy and entropy.
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First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is conserved. 2200 E = q + w, where 2200 E = internal energy change q = heat absorbed w = the work done Any process that occurs without outside intervention is spontaneous. When two eggs are dropped they spontaneously break. The reverse reaction is not spontaneous. We can conclude that a spontaneous process has a direction. Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous Processes
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A process that is spontaneous in one direction is not spontaneous in the opposite direction. The direction of a spontaneous process can depend on temperature: Ice turning to water is spontaneous at T > 0 ° C, Water turning to ice is spontaneous at T < 0 ° C. Spontaneous Processes Direction Spontaneous Processes Direction
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Predict whether the following processes are spontaneous as described, are spontaneous in the reverse direction, or are in equilibrium: (a) When a piece of metal heated to 2 Class Example Problem Class Example Problem
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A reversible process is one that can go back and forth between states along the same path. Chemical systems in equilibrium are reversible. They can interconvert between reactants and products For example, consider the interconversion of water and ice Reversible Processes Reversible Processes
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A irreversible process is one that cannot be reversed to
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor John during the Spring '11 term at Caldwell College.

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Chapter 19 Thermodynamics - CHEMISTRY The Central Science...

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