#1 Global Relations (1500-...) - Global Relations… I. The...

#1 Global Relations (1500-...)
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Global Relations… I. The European reconnaissance of the world's oceans   A. Motives for exploration  1. Resource-poor Portugal searched for fresh resources  a. From the thirteenth to the fifteenth century they  ventured out onto Atlantic  b. Established sugar plantations in the Atlantic islands 2. The lure of direct trade without Muslim intermediaries  a. Asian spice trade  b. African gold, ivory, and slaves 3. Missionary efforts of European Christians  a. New Testament urged Christians to spread the faith  throughout the world  b. Crusades and holy wars against Muslims in early  centuries  c. Reconquista  of Spain inspired Iberian crusaders 4. Various motives combined and reinforced each other B. The technology of exploration enabled European mariners to travel  offshore  1. Sternpost rudder and two types of sails enabled ships to  advance against wind  2. Navigational instruments  a. Magnetic compass  b. Astrolabe (and cross and back staffs) 
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3. Knowledge of winds and currents enabled Europeans to  travel reliably  a. Trade winds north and south of the equator  b. Regular monsoons in Indian Ocean basin  c. The  volta do mar C. Voyages of exploration: From the Mediterranean to the Atlantic  1. Dom Henrique, king of Portugal, encouraged exploration of  west Africa  a. Portuguese conquered Ceuta in north Africa in 1415  b. Soon after, established trading posts at Sao Jorge da  Mina, west Africa  c. Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered  the Indian Ocean, 1488 2. Vasco da Gama of Portugal  a. Crossed Indian Ocean; reached India, 1497; brought  back huge profit  b. Portuguese merchants built a trading post at Calicut, 
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