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#2 Religion Transforms Europe (1500-1800)

#2 Religion Transforms Europe (1500-1800) - A 1...

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Religion Transforms Europe… I. The fragmentation of western Christendom   A. The Protestant Reformation  1. Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacked the sale of indulgences,  1517  a. Attacked corruption in the Roman Catholic Church;  called for reform  b. Argument reproduced with printing presses and  widely read  c. Enthusiastic popular response from lay Christians,  princes, and many cities  d. By mid-sixteenth century, half the German people  adopted Lutheran Christianity 2. Reform spread outside Germany  a. Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Low  Countries  b. English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's  desire for divorce 3. John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism  a. Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in  the 1530s  b. Calvinist missionaries were successful in Scotland,  Low Countries, also in France and England B. The Catholic Reformation 
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1. The Council of Trent, 1545-1563, directed reform of Roman  Catholic Church  2. The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded 1540 by Ignatius  Loyola  a. High standards in education  b. Became effective advisors and missionaries  worldwide C. Witch-hunts and religious wars  1. Witch-hunts in Europe  a. Theories and fears of witches intensified in the  sixteenth century  b. Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about  witches and devil worship  c. About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them  women 2. Religious wars between Protestants and Catholics  throughout the sixteenth century  a. Civil war in France for thirty-six years (1562-1598)  b. War between Catholic Spain and Protestant England,  1588  c. Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted  against rule of Catholic Spain  3. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), the most destructive  European war up to WWI  a. Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually  involved most of Europe 
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b. Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states):  lost one-third population II.
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