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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Nominations, Elections and Campaigns The Evolution of Campaigning Election campaign: an organized effort to persuade voters to choose one candidate over others competing for the same office Have evolved from being party-centered to candidate-centered Candidate and Party Focus on Candidate Focus on Party Nominations Most distinguishing feature of U.S. nomination process: involves an election by party voters Nomination for Congress and State Offices Primary Election: a preliminary election conducted within a political party to select candidates who will run for public office in a subsequent election. Only about half the regular party voters generally vote in a given primary There has been a decline in competition for party nominations Major Candidates in Primaries, 2008 Democrats: Hillary Clinton vs. Obama (picture) GOP: Romney, McCain, Huckabee (picture) Nominations Nomination for Congress and State Offices Types of Primary Elections: Closed primary: voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that partys potential nominees Open primary: voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one partys primary ballot to take into the voting booth Open or Closed: Advantages and Disadvantages The advantage of open primaries is that candidates who draw support beyond their own party faithful can show that support One disadvantage of open primaries is that members of the other party can vote for the candidate they think will be weaker , in effect picking the opposing candidate to suit themselves. Primaries Continued Modified closed primary: allows individual state parties decide whether to permit independents to vote in their primaries and for which office Modified open primary: entitles independent voters to vote in a partys primary Note: Nominations in US and Elsewhere The US is almost unique in choosing its candidates by primaries. In most democracies, nominees are chosen by party committees or conventions. In parliamentary countries, the party leaders are often chosen by vote of the partys members of parliament. In a few nations, party activists can vote for a leader, but there are no open primaries. Nominations Nomination for President Until the 1960s, delegates chose their partys nominee at the national convention Since 1972, national conventions have simply ratified the results of the complex process for selecting convention delegates Nominations Changes in the Presidential Nomination Process Nominations Selecting Convention Delegates Most important distinction is between presidential primary and local caucus Presidential primary : a special primary election used to select delegates to attend the partys national convention, which in turn nominates the presidential candidate In primaries, voters vote by ballot as in general elections (picture) Nominations 2 Caucus/convention : a method used to select delegates to attend a partys national convention; generally, a local meeting selects delegates for a county-level meeting,...
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2011 for the course BUS 500 taught by Professor Fogel during the Spring '10 term at Salem Intl..
- Spring '10