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Chapt4

Chapt4 - Chapter 4 Insolation and Temperature I The Impact...

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Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature I. The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape A. all organisms have certain temperature tolerances B. most inorganic components of landscape are affected by long-run temperature conditions 1. temperature is a basic factor in soil development 2. repeated temperature fluctuations are prominent cause in breakdown of exposed bedrock II. Energy, Heat and Temperature A. Energy 1. energy : ability to do work 2. anything that changes the state or condition of matter 3. kinetic energy: the energy of movement a. constant movement of molecules in all substances b. associated with how hot or cold something is c. increased kinetic energy results in a substance warming up B. Temperature and Heat 1. temperature a. description of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance b. degree of hotness or coldness of a substance c. more vigorous the jiggling of the molecules, the higher the temperature of a substance 2. heat/thermal energy a. energy that transfers from one object or substance to another because of a difference in temperature b. energy transferred from object with higher temperature to object with lower temperature C. Measuring Temperature 1. Fahrenheit Scale a. sea level freezing point of water = 32 o F b. sea level boiling point of water = 212 o F 2. Celsius Scale a. component of International System of measurement (SI) b. sea level freezing point of water = 0 o C c. sea level boiling point of water = 100 o C d. conversions: 1) o F = ( o C x 1.8) + 32 o 2) o C = ( o F – 32 o )/1.8 3. Kelvin Scale a. measures absolute temperature 1) scale begins at absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature 2) absolute zero : temperature at which molecules have their minimum kinetic energy 3) 100 o range between the freezing and boiling points of water

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Chapter 4: Insolation and Temperature – p. 2 of 12 4) there are no negative values b. conversions 1) o C = o K – 273 o 2) o K = o C + 273 o 4. Focus: Gathering Temperature Data a. official temperatures are measured in the shade b. daily mean temperature : average of the daily maximum and daily minimum temperature c. daily temperature range : number of degrees difference between the highest and lowest recorded values in a 24 hour period d. monthly temperature mean : determined by averaging the daily means for each day e. annual temperature mean : average of the 12 monthly means f. annual temperature range : difference between the means of the warmest and coldest months in a year III. Solar Energy A. Intro 1. the sun supplies essentially all the energy that drives most of the atmospheric processes on Earth 2. unequal heating of the Earth by the sun puts the atmosphere in motion and is responsible for the most fundamental patterns of weather and climate 3. the sun produces energy by nuclear fusion B. Electromagnetic Radiation 1. form of sun’s radiant energy 2. does not require a medium for transmission 3. speed of light = 186,000 mi/sec; energy travel time sun to Earth = 8 mins
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Chapt4 - Chapter 4 Insolation and Temperature I The Impact...

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