intro 2 - A History of Control Systems History of Control...

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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems Steam Pressure and Temperature Controls : Boiler safety valve: excessive pressure in the boiler would exceed the weight on the valve top causing the valve to open and venting excess stream if the pressure did not exceed the weight, the valve did not open The weight on the valve top set the internal pressure Incubator temperature control: sed a floater inserted into a vial of alcohol and mercury used a floater inserted into a vial of alcohol and mercury floater connected to a damper controlling a flame as heat increased, mercury expanded, damper closed, flame reduced as heat decreased, float descended, damper opened, flame increased (c) 2010 Farrokh Sharifi 31
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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems Speed Control : 1745 - Windmill speed control: stronger winds forced the blades back, reducing surface area As winds decreased, the original surface area was reestablished 1769 - James Watt – flyball speed governor: used to control the speed of steam engines two spinning flyballs rise as rotational speed increases steam valve opens and closes with ascending and descending flyballs 868 M ll d l th ti l d l f 1868 Maxwell develops mathematical model of governer control. (c) 2010 Farrokh Sharifi 32
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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems ames Watt Speed Governor (c) 2010 Farrokh Sharifi 33 James Watt Speed Governor
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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems Stability, Stabilization, and Steering : 1874 – Ship steering and stabilization Henry Bessemer used a gyro to sense a ship’s motion the ship was kept sable by applying power generated by the ship’s hydraulic system to move the ship’s saloon Additional work was done to stabilize platforms for guns as well as to stabilize the entire ship using pendulums (c) 2010 Farrokh Sharifi 34
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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems Twentieth-Century Developments : 1922 – The Sperry Gyroscope Company developed tomatic steering systems for ships automatic steering systems for ships 1920s – Nicholas Minorsky developed what we call today proportional-integral-derivative (PID), or three-mode, ntrollers (studied later in the course) controllers (studied later in the course) 1930s – Bode and Nyquist developed the analysis of feedback amplifiers. Bode and Nyquist plots for analysing stability. 1941 – Creation of the first anti-aircraft gun with active ntrol. co o . (c) 2010 Farrokh Sharifi 35
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History of Control Systems A History of Control Systems Twentieth-Century Developments : 1948 – Walter Evans created a graphical technique to plot e roots of a characteristic equation of a feedback system; the roots of a characteristic equation of a feedback system; this is now known as the root locus (also studied later in this course) 952 C (numerical control) was introduced by MIT for 1952 – NC (numerical control) was introduced by MIT for control of machine tool axes.
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intro 2 - A History of Control Systems History of Control...

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