Chapter+6+Part+1 - Chapter 6 Thermochemistry Energy is the...

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Thermochemistry Chapter 6
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Energy is the capacity to do work (Greek: “work within”) Radiant energy comes from the sun and is earth’s primary energy source Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules Chemical energy is the energy stored within the bonds of chemical substances Nuclear energy is the energy stored within the collection of neutrons and protons in the atom Potential energy is the energy available by virtue of an object’s position Kinetic energy is the energy related to an object’s motion (KE = ½mv 2 )
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Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperatures. Thermal Energy Transfer in Chemical Reactions Temperature is a measure of the thermal energy . Temperature = Thermal Energy Heat is the thermal energy transferred from one substance to another substance, as a result of a difference in temperature (ΔT) between the substances. This thermal energy passes from warmer (higher T) to cooler (lower T) , and not the other way around. When we say that “heat flows” or “heat is lost or gained”, we do not mean that a substance actually contains heat, but that “heat” is simply referring to a quantity of thermal energy that is transferred .
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Thermochemistry is the study of heat flow in chemical reactions between a system and surroundings . The system is the specific part of the universe that is of interest in the study – the FOCUS of the study. The surroundings are the environment around the system, including any containers that contain the system. Open system Exchange: Closed system energy Isolated system nothing
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Exothermic process is any process that gives off heat – transfers thermal energy from the system to the surroundings . Endothermic process is any process in which thermal energy has to be supplied to the system from the surroundings . 2H 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2H 2 O ( l ) + energy H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( s ) + energy 2H 2 O ( l ) + energy 2H 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) H 2 O (s) + energy H 2 O (l)
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is the scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other kinds of energy. State functions are properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how that condition was achieved. Potential energy of hiker 1 and hiker 2 is the same even though they took different paths. Both have same ΔE . energy, pressure, volume, temperature - T initial
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Chapter+6+Part+1 - Chapter 6 Thermochemistry Energy is the...

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