F10HW10-CH8 - HOMEWORK WEEK 10 CHAPTER 8 8.6 The noble-gas...

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HOMEWORK WEEK 10 CHAPTER 8 8.6 The noble-gas core is an inner-shell configuration corresponding to one of the noble gases. The valence electron is an electron (of an atom) located outside the noble-gas core and outside complete d or f subshells. It is an electron primarily involved in chemical reactions. In general, it is the highest-energy electrons for a given atom which are the valence electrons. 8.9 In Groups IA and IIA, the outer s subshell is being filled: s 1 for Group IA and s 2 for Group IIA. The s subshell contains one orbital, which can hold up to 2 electrons, hence the s block consists of only 2 groups. In Groups IIIA to VIIIA, the outer p subshell is being filled: p 1 for IIIA, p 2 for IVA, p 3 for VA, p 4 for VIA, p 5 for VIIA, and p 6 for VIIIA. The p subshell contains 3 orbitals, which can hold a total of 6 electrons, so there are 6 groups in the p block. In the transition elements, the (n - 1) d subshell is being filled from d 1 to d 10 electrons, because of the 5 orbitals in the d subshell. In the lanthanides and actinides, the f subshell is being filled from f 1 to f 14 electrons, because of the 7 orbitals in the f subshell. 8.11 In a plot of atomic radii versus atomic number (Figure 8.16), the major trends that emerge are the following: (1) Within each period (horizontal row), the atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number or nuclear charge. The largest atom in a period is thus the Group 1A atom, and the smallest atom in a period is thus the noble-gas atom. (2) Within each group (vertical column), the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number. In a plot of ionization energy versus atomic number (Figure 8.18), the major trends are (1) the ionization energy within a period increases with atomic number, and (2) the ionization energy within a group tends to decrease going down the group. In general, atomic size and ionization energy vary in opposite senses – when one increases, the other decreases. 8.14 The goal of each element when forming ionic compounds is to obtain an octet of valence electrons. Because sodium contains one valence electron, it prefers to give up that one electron (to form Na+) so that it can have an octet as quickly as possible. To remove another electron and form an ion with a +2 charge
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F10HW10-CH8 - HOMEWORK WEEK 10 CHAPTER 8 8.6 The noble-gas...

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