FinalExamStudyGuide12--updated for final

FinalExamStudyGuide12--updated for final - HIST 2111 Final...

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HIST 2111 Final Exam Study Guide ID’s Monroe Doctrine: Part of Monroe’s speech to Congress in 1823, drafted by SecState John Q. Adams, that expressed three principles: 1-US opposition to any colonization efforts by European powers in the Americas 2- US would abstain from involvement in European wars 3- warned European powers not to interfere with newly independent states of Latin America. Led to US being dominant power in the Western hemisphere. Marbury v. Madison (1803): William Marbury was appointed Justice of the Peace by John Adams just before he left office, along with several other “Midnight Judges”. When Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801, his secretary of State James Madison refused to deliver his commission. Marbury sued for the appointment, but Chief Justice John Marshall held that the part of the statute on which he based his claim (Judiciary Act of 1789) was unconstitutional. This established judicial review, the idea that courts can oversee and nullify the actions of the executive and legislature. Clay’s American System: Henry Clay’s term for Madison’s 1815 blueprint for government- promoted economic development. 3 pillars: A new national bank to lend and promote manufacturing; tariff on imported manufactured goods to protect American industry; and federal financing of infrastructure improvement. Had support among northerners and southern yeomen. Madison vetoed a bill authorizing infrastructure improvement, believing it unconstitutional after having reconsidered. Hist. Sig.: Bank of the US created in 1816 and new tariff that protected US goods but was tax-free for imports that couldn’t be made in the US. Working Men’s Party: Mechanics’ Union of Trade Association formed in 1827 combining 50 different unions to give a larger voice. By 1833 the was a Working Men’s Party presence in 15 states. Lobbied for fair taxation, public schools, abolishing banks. Core ideology was Artisan Republicanism: each man a business owner. Fought against by judges and employers. Hist. Sig: beginning of modern day labor union. Panic of 1837 put the brakes on it: 33% unemployment and wages fell 30-50% in 2 years. Hist Sig.: 2 important gains: 10hr Fed work day and Commonwealth v. Hunt legalized unions.
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Sabbatarian Movement: Lyman Beecher founded the General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath in 1828. Attempted to repeal law allowing mail delivery on Sundays. Instrumental in instituting liquor laws. Hist. Sig: Pioneered tactics used by future reformers and greatly influenced the temperance movement. Shakers: First successful American communal movement led my “Mother” Ann Lee Stanley. Established 1 st church in 1774 in Albany, NY. Crazy dancing led to being called shakers. Church leaders had strict oversight over members and ordered abstinence from sex, alcohol,
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FinalExamStudyGuide12--updated for final - HIST 2111 Final...

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